Posted tagged ‘Translation from Spanish to English’

Translation 18. Some English-Spanish Translation Pitfalls. Part 2.

18 May 2010

[From Part 1:
Most words in formal and scientific English and Spanish are of Latin or Greek origin. Many therefore have predictable cognate forms in Spanish or English, which eases the process of learning one of these languages by speakers of the other. However, there are a significant number of cases where the corresponding English/Spanish forms show significant differences, often in their prefixes or suffixes. These irregular correspondences or “near-cognates” need to be learned separately, especially by translators and interpreters. In this blog and the following one, a selection of such potential translation pitfalls is presented.]

Part 2. N-Z
(English>Spanish)

neurotransmitter, neurotransmisor
non linear, no lineal
nuclide, nucleido

occupant, inquilino; pasajero
official, adj: oficial; n. funcionario
optimal, óptimo
organo, [prefix]: orgánico

parasitic, parasitario; (also: parasítico)
pathogenesis, patogenia
pathogenetic, patogénico
pathogenic, patógeno
peripheral, periférico
personnel, n, personal
phenobarbitone, fenobarbital
physical, adj., físico
physicist, n, físico
physiotherapist, fisioterapeuta
physiotherapy, fisioterapia
platelets, plaquetas
pollinate, polinizar
pollination, polinización
polychlorinated, policlorado
polyunsaturated, poliinsaturado
population, población; adj., demográfico
porphyry, pórfido; adj, porfídico
prediction, pronóstico; profecía
prejudicial, perjudicial
pressurize, presionizar
prestressed concrete, hormigón pretensado
profile, perfil
prognosis, pronóstico
propanone, acetona
proponent, partidario
proposition, propuesta
prospect, perspectiva
prospecting, prospección
protective, protector
protozoa, protozoarios, protozoos
protozoon, protozoo, protozoario
prussic acid, ácido cianhídrico
psychopharmaceuticals, psicofármacos
purification, depuración
purify, depurar
purifying, depurador
purity, pureza
pyrogenic, pirógeno

quantum mechanics, mecánica cuántica

radiant flux density, radiancia
radioactive, radiactivo
radionuclide, radionucleido
reactant, reactivo
reagent, reactivo
realistic, realista
rearmament, rearme
recondition, reacondicionar
recreational, recreativo
refractory, refractario
regulating agent, agente estabilizante
rehydration, rehidratación
reinforce, reforzar
remedial, terapéutico
repay, pagar
repository, depósito; depositario
representative, adj., representativo; n, representante
reproductive, reproductor
revaluation, revalorización
reverberate, retumbar
reverse osmosis, ósmosis inversa
rhetoric, n, retórica
rhetorical retórico
rock, adj., rupestre
ruminant, adj. y n., rumiante

sal ammoniac, cloruro de amonio
salary, sueldo
salination, salinización
saline water, agua salobre
salutary, saludable
sanitarium (North American English), sanatorio
sanitation, saneamiento
schistosomiasis, esquistosomiasis
sensible, sensato
sensitive, sensible
sensitivity, sensibilidad
sensitize, sensibilizar
sequestering agent, agente lixiviador
signatory, firmante; (also: signatario, -a)
significant, significativo; trascendente
silica, sílice
silicon, silicio
soda, sosa
soda ash, cenizas de sosa
stagnant, estancado
statistician, estadístico
steel, adj., siderúrgico
stroke, apoplejía; ataque cerebral
strontium, estroncio
sub arctic, adj., subártico
sulphonamide, sulfamida
sulphur dioxide, anhídrido sulfuroso
surgery, cirua (surgeon: cirujano)
surgical, quirúrgico
symmetrical, simétrico
sympathetic, compasivo
synthesize, sintetizar
syzygy, sizigia

tantalum, tantalio
tariff, arancel
tax, n, impuesto; adj., fiscal
temperate, templado
theoretically, en teoría; teóricamente
thermal, térmico
therm, [th], termia [Unit of heat]
thyroid, n, tiroides; adj., tiroideo
tremor, temblor
turbidity, turbiedad; turbidez
two dimensional, bidimensional

ubiquitous, omnipresente; ubicuo
un-, [negative prefix]: no, in- ,des-, poco, sin
undulating, ondulante, ondulado
unhygienic, antihigiénico
unsatisfied, insatisfecho
unsaturated, insaturado
unstable, inestable
unusable, inutilizable
unusual, insólito
Utopian, utópico; utopista

vaccinate, vacunar
validate, convalidar
validation, convalidación
viral, vírico

water, adj., hidráulico; hidrográfico; hidrológico
water cycle, ciclo hidrológico
water soluble, hidrosoluble
wind energy, energía eólica

zirconium, circonio
*

Translation 16. Some English-Spanish Translation Pitfalls. Part 1.

6 May 2010

Most words in formal and scientific English and Spanish are of Latin or Greek origin. Many therefore have predictable cognate forms in Spanish or English, which eases the process of learning one of these languages by speakers of the other. However, there are a significant number of cases where the corresponding English/Spanish forms show significant differences, often in their prefixes or suffixes. These irregular correspondences or “near-cognates” need to be learned separately, especially by translators and interpreters. In this blog and the following one, a selection of such potential translation pitfalls is presented.

A-M
English > Spanish

abnormal, anormal
abortion, aborto
absorptiometer, absorciómetro
absorption, absorción
acclimatization, aclimatación
acclimatize, aclimatar(se)
accomplice, cómplice
acidic, ácido
adrenal, suprarrenal
adsorption, adsorción
aeolian, eólico
agricultural expert, agrónomo, a
agriculturalist, agricultor, a
agriculturist, agricultor, a
agronomist, agrónomo, a
allele, alelo
allergenic, alergógeno
allogenic, alógeno
amebic (North American English), amebiano
ammonium, monio
amoeba, ameba
amoebic, amebiano
amoebic dysentery, disentería amebiana
amphetamine, anfetamina
amphibian, adj & n., anfibio
antacid, antiácido
anthropogenic factor, factor antropógeno
anticarcinogenic, anticancerígeno
anticline, anticlinal; anticlino
anti depressant, adj & n., antidepresivo
anti fungal, antifúngico
antihistamine, adj & n., antihistamínico
antimalarial, antimalárico
antiviral, antivírico
aquaponics, acuicultura
architectectural, arquitectónico
argillaceous, arcilloso
asepsis, asepsia
astatine, astato
astronomer, astrónomo
astrophysicist, astrofísico
astrophysics, astrofísica
atavistic, atávico
automation, automatización
autonomic, vegetativo
bacteria, bacterias
bacterial, bacteriano
barbiturate, sustancia barbitúrica
beneficial, beneficioso
benthic zone, zona bentónica
benzene, benceno
benzine, bencina
bilharzia, bilharziasis
bioassay, bioensayo
biocatalyst, biocatalizador
biocoenosis, biocenosis
biomimesis, biomimetismo
biphenyl, difenilo
botanist, botánico
bromine, bromo
bromide, bromuro
capable, capaz
capillary, capilar
carbolic acid, ácido fénico
carbon dioxide, gas carbónico; anhídrido carbónico
carcinogenic, cancerígeno
caustic soda, sosa cáustica
centrifugal, centrífugo
centripetal, centrípeto
cerebral palsy, parálisis cerebral
cetacean, cetáceo
chiropractic, quiropraxia
chloride, cloruro
chlorinate, clorar; tratar con cloro
chlorinating, cloración (química)
chlorination, cloración
chlorinator, clorador
chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], clorofluorocarburos
choline, colina
chromosomal, cromosómico
chrysalis, crisálida
cinnabar, cinabrio
coercive, coercitivo
columbium, n., niobio; adj., nióbico
compaction (of soil), compactación (del suelo)
compulsory, obligatorio
cumulative dose, dosis acumulada/aditiva
concrete, hormigón
consistent, consecuente
consortium, consorcio
consumerism, consumismo
controversial, polémico; controvertido
correlate, correlacionar
counter intelligence, contraespionaje
credible, creíble
critical, crítico; crucial
criticism, crítica
cryogenic, criógeno; criogénico
cryogenics; criogenia
cryophilic, criófilo
cumulative dose, dosis acumulada/aditiva
cyanide, cianuro
cynicism, cinismo
data, datos
DC [=direct current], corriente continua
de [prefijo]: des (also: de-)
de jure, de derecho
deciduous, caducifolio
defective, defectuoso
deformed, deforme
dehydrate, deshidratar
dehydrated, deshidratado
demethylation, desmetilación
demonstration, manifestación; prueba
denature, desnaturalizar
denatured, desnaturalizado
denaturing, desnaturante
denitration, desnitrificación
depopulation, despoblamiento
desalination, desalinización
desalt, desalar; desalinizar
desalting, desalación
desecrate, profanar
desecration, profanación
desert, n., desierto; adj., desértico
desertification, desertificación; desertización
desperate, desesperado
destabilize, desestabilizar
deterioration, deterioro
detoxification, desintoxicación
detoxify, desintoxicar
diagnose, diagnosticar
diagnosis, diagnóstico; (also: diagnosis)
dietary, dietético
digitization. digitalización
digitize, digitalizar
dioxide, bióxido
disarmament, desarme
discoloration, decoloración
disqualification, inhabilitación
disqualify, inhabilitar
dissatisfaction, insatisfacción
dissatisfied, insatisfecho
dubious, dudoso; sospechoso
ecoguer(r)illa, ecoguerrillero
elementary, elemental; rudimentario
embryonic, embrionario
empiricism, empirismo
emulsified, emulsionado
emulsifier, emulsionante; emulgente
emulsify, emulsionar
energetic, enérgico; vigoroso
energy, n., energía; adj., energético
enthusiast, aficionado
eolian, eólico
epidemic, epidemia
equitable, equitativo
eradicate, erradicar
eradication, erradicación
erodibility, erosionabilidad
ethicist, ético
eugenic, adj., eugenista
eugenicist, n., eugenista
eugenics, eugenesia
eutrophicate, eutrofizar
eutrophication, eutrofización
evolutionary, evolutivo
evolve, evolucionar
exhaustible, agotable
exhibition, exposición
explain, explicar
explanation, explicación
expropriate, expropiar
expropriation, expropiación
extermination, exterminio
extraterrestrial, adj. & n., extraterrestre
feldspar, feldespato
feral, silvestre
fissile, fisible; (also: fisil)
fluoridate, fluorizar
fluoridation, fluorización
fluoride, fluoruro
fluorine, flúor
fluorocarbon, fluorocarburo; adj., fluorocarbúrico
fragrance, fragancia
fragrant, fragante
gallium arsenate, arseniato de galio
gargantuan, gigantesco; colosal
geneticist, genético
geodetic, geodésico
geosyncline, geosinclinal
geothermal (energy), geotérmico
geriatrician, geriatra
germicidal, adj., bactericida
germicide, bactericida
glacier, glaciar
global, mundial
global warming, recalentamiento mundial
gluc(o), [prefix]: glic(o) ; gluc(o) (‘dulce’)
glycogen, glucógeno; (also: glicógeno)
guerilla/guerrilla (as adj.), guerrillero
herbal, herbario
horticultural, hortícola
hybridisation, hibridación
hydrocarbons, hidrocarburos
hydrochloric acid, ácido clorhidrico
hydrocyanic, cianhídrico
hydrophyte, planta hidrófila
immune (system), as adj., (sistema) inmunitario
immunization, inmunización
immunodepressant, adj y n., inmunodepresor
incapacitate, imposibilitar
inconsistent, inconsecuente; incongruente
indefensible, indefendible
indemnify, indemnizar
individual, adj., individual; n., individuo
infertile, estéril; infecundo
inhabit, habitar
inhabitant, habitante
inherit, heredar
inhibit, cohibir; prohibir
inhibited, cohibido
insensitive, insensible
insulate, aislar
insulation, aislamiento; material aislante
inventory, inventario
invest, invertir
investment, inversión
investor, inversionista
iodide, yoduro
iodine, yodo
irrelevant, no pertinente
irreplaceable, insustituible
irresponsible, irresponsable
irreversible, irrevocable; irreversible
irrigate, (Agriculture) regar; (Med.) irrigar
irrigated land, (tierra de) regadío
irrigation, (Agriculture) riego; (Med.) irrigación
irreplaceable, insustituible
isoclinal, isoclina
isomeric, isómero
isomerism, isomeria
isotherm, isoterma
isothermal, isotermo
ketone, cetona
kinematics, cinemática
kinetic, cinético
kinetics, cinética
lactation, lactancia
laxative, laxante
legume, leguminosa
linear, lineal
lipotropic factor, factor lipotropo
liquefied (gas), licuado
liquefy, licuar
long, largo
malignant, maligno
microbial, microbiano
malignant, maligno
malnutrition, desnutrición
mammal, mamífero
matrix, matriz
microbial, microbiano
monoculture, monocultivo
monounsaturated, monoinsaturado
moratorium, moratoria
multicellular, pluricelular
multifaceted, multifacético
multilingual, plurilingüe
mutate, mudar
mutual, mutuo
*
(To be continued)

Translation 9. Paying expert translators is not a waste of money. A trivial example

2 September 2009

Disclaimer:
In spite of what is shown in the following quotations from one book, educated Mexicans tend to speak very good English. They have to because their careers often depend on this facility. Unfortunately, the same cannot yet be said for educated speakers of American English in relation to fluency in Spanish.

In 1997, the Mexican author Eduardo R. Huchim published an interesting futuristic political novel, set in 2000, with ample doses of sexual interludes. It was titled Las conjuras. Una historia en el México del año 2000 (Mexico, Grijalbo, 1997).

The author includes some imaginary telephone conversations on serious matters between the American and Mexican Presidents. Presumably to add realism, Huchim writes these conversations mainly in English. But the seriousness of the topics under discussion is completely undermined by the unconvincing language used. The resulting bathos is due to Señor Huchim’s failure to take the precaution of getting his comically literal English checked, at minimal cost, by a competent translator.

Here are some of the results (they include sloppy spelling and punctuation):
-Mr. president, you can not anounce what your message says.
-Of course I can, Mr. president. I shall do it in 20 minutes.
-Do you want to kick the world?
-Do you want to do that?
-Of course not.
-Then, agree to the moratorium.
-Will you forget the drug legalization and the reduction of your exports …?
-Yes, Mr. president. I promise I will forget both things for some months-. I need proof of the efectiveness of your program against drug consumption and I need to see the oil prices. (p.119)
-Well, Mr. president. I need some hours to try to persuade my team and the IMF about the moratorium.
-How many hours, Mr. president?
-This day.
-OK, Mr president. I will postpone my message until tomorrow. I shall wait for your notifications.
-It is a black mail.
-From your part, Mr. president. You are who tries to persuade me not to give my message to my people.
Una carcajada de William Clinton y un “you are terrible” puso fin a la breve charla. (p. 120) [A belly laugh from President Clinton and a “you are terrible” ended the brief conversation.]

-Mr. president. There is an only way against the drugs. It is the legalization. Any other thing will fail. It is necessary to walk on that road. But while it is possible, I’ll have good news for you very soon. Be atent about news. Good morning, Mr. president. (p. 125)

-Mr. president, I also want to tell you of an important matter. I think our differences had gone far enough. I want to propose you an agreement for the normalization at once of all our commerce, including oil and petrochemistry. We accept your decisions on the matter and we are ready, tomorrow if you want, to sign an agreement for buying and paying for all the oil that we did not buy in the last four months. You will give us the oil in a period of three months.

-Oh, Mr. president, be understanding. Congress is very angry. Do not make it difficult.

-Nuestra decisión es definitiva. Yo tendría mañana al pueblo en rebelión si, después de tantos sacrificios, me rindiera -insistió López Obrador. (p. 208)
-No, Mr. president, your people would be calming down after so many sacrifices. But this is not a conversation between merchants. So I accept your prices, but this will be signed immediatly. OK?

-Yes, Mrs. secretary -se despidió [el Presidente] Williams dirigiéndose a Jimena-, someday all of you will know how much you have won tonight, much, very much more than an oil bussiness. Good nigth. (p. 209)
*

And Good night to readers!

Translation from Spanish to English 1

18 June 2008

Selected Practical Hints on Translating from Spanish to English

1)
a) Analysis and examples: 2.8.3.1

2.8.3.1 “whether … or …
(ya) + subjunctive (o) + (ya) + subjunctive
(ya) + subjunctive o / que no
ya + subjunctive + noun + o + noun

Ya estuviesen hablando, ya estuviesen jugando al tute, Juanita rara vez suspendía su costura. (Spaulding, 64) Whether they were talking or playing cards, Juanita seldom interrupted her sewing.
Ya sea que obren o que se abstengan, los Estados Unidos serán siempre … la influencia exterior más grande de cuantas pesen en el destino de México. (M. L. Guzmán, Mex, 44) Whether it takes an active role or abstains, USA …
Tengo la obligación de predicar la palabra de Dios, me oigan o no. (A. Gala, 44) … whether they listen or not.
Queramos o no, estos seres son mexicanos, uno de los extremos a que puede llegar el mexicano. (O. Paz, Mex, 13)
El nombre forma parte de la persona, sea física o jurídica. (J. G. Labaké, Arg, 122)

b) Practice
Translate into English. [Reference: 2.8.3.1]

15. Ya se lo considere acto de locura o de cobardía, las doctrinas religiosas y éticas han llegado a condenar generalmente el suicidio … (A. Reyes, Mex, 265)
16. Ya viva usted en el Círculo Polar Ártico o en las ardientes y húmedas selvas del África ecuatorial, puede comprar unos litros de gasolina o una lata de kerosén cuando quiera y donde quiera, a percio razonable. (Revista Shell, June 1962, quoted in Richardson, 115)
17. En lo sucesivo, nuestro país usará recursos naturales para estimular su desarrollo, ya sea abasteciendo la demanda interna o fomentando las exportaciones … (L. Echeverría Álvarez, Mex, in El Gobierno Informa, 30-9-71: 46)
18. El pago de una letra [de cambio] podrá garantizarse mediante aval, ya sea por la totalidad o por parte de su importe. (Código de Comercio y Leyes Complementarias, 1016)
19. Los actos de comercio, sean o no comerciantes los que los ejecuten, y estén o no especificados en este Código, se regirán por las disposiciones contenidas en él; en su defecto, por los usos del comercio observados generalmente en cada plaza … (Código de Comercio y Leyes Complementarias, 50)

2.
a) Analysis and examples: 4.3.1

A very important separate category of se usage, and the cause of potential comprehension problems, is the se + a third person singular verb pattern when used to convey in an impersonal way an action or activity carried out by an anonymous person. This is a very characteristically Spanish construction, although it is similar to French On+ verb and German Man + verb (‘One’). Translation will usually be with a general subject (one, people, ‘you’, we, etc.) or a carefully chosen ‘workaround’.

Se hace lo que se puede. You do what you can. / One does what one can.
Entonces se comía muy bien. In those days people ate very well.
Cuanto más se trabaja, más se aprende. (Spaulding, 29)
The more / longer you work, the more you learn.
-¡Qué bien se está a tu lado! (Keniston, 150)
How nice it is to be at your side! / … to be sitting by your side.
Se puede o no ser católico. Se puede o no optar por los pobres. Lo que no se puede es ser indiferente … ante la pobreza y la marginación, en nombre del catolicismo. (J. G. Labaké, Arg, 49)
En ocasiones se ha intentado manipular la relación entre el investigador y los participantes en una experiencia para comprobar los resultados de la interacción. (L. Fernández Briones, 157) Sometimes attempts have been made to manipulate …
-Quisiera que nos dijese, que nos explicase ampliamente, cómo se construye hoy en España. (M. Gorosch, 90) … the present state of the building trade in Spain.
Para ir a Brunete, no hay tren. Se va en un coche como las diligencias antiguas; un coche con seis mulas pintado de amarillo y rojo. (A. Barea, 30) … You take a coach …

b) Practice
Translate into English [Reference: 4.3.1]

32. Se mata sin pensar, bien probado lo tengo; a veces, sin querer. Se odia, se odia intensamente, ferozmente, y se abre la navaja, y con ella bien abierta, se llega, descalzo, hasta la cama donde duerme el Enemigo. (C. J. Cela, 1962: 140)
33. Bastó que una vez el oficial le dijera: “Sepúlveda, no se nada contra la corriente y, Sepúlveda, no se hace retroceder el tiempo pegando las hojas de los meses que ya pasaron en la parte final del calendario.” (A. Skármeta, Chile, 1992: 82)
34. “No podemos asegurar que se llegue a un acuerdo o que se materialice una transacción,” advirtieron los dos fabricantes de equipos de telecomunicaciones en un comunicado conjunto. (El Mundo, http://www.elmundo.es, 26-3-06)
35. Para nosotros el prestigio político es cuestión de cantidad. Se es más o menos importante según la cantidad de años que se lleva en eso.
(C. Maggi, Urug, 96)
36. Dicho esto, calificó de “tontería” que se diga que se necesita una paz sin vencedores ni vencidos. (The Spanish Herald, Sydney, 17-3-06, 10 – Spain)

3.
a) Analyses and examples: 5.3.7.2 estar / seguir / quedarse sin + infinitive
The construction sin + infinitive may be used, with or without estar, as a complement, as a noun qualifier with passive connotations. Translation will usually be with:
(still +) a negative passive past tense or a negative -D adjective (e.g. not opened; unopened).

La ropa blanca estaba sin planchar. (G. García Márquez, 1968b: 9)
The linen had not been ironed. /… was unironed.
El misterio sigue sin aclararse respecto a ambos puntos. (Informaciones, 19-7-73)
… con marcadas posibilidades industriales sin explotar hasta ahora. (España Semanal, 20-2-67) … with distinct but hitherto unexploited industrial potential.
Nos hemos quedado sin saber qué planes tienen. We still do not know what their plans are.
Todo quedó sin hacer. Everything was left undone.
Sin admitir oficialmente, se mantienen intactos los extranjerismos stand, golf, girl…
(J. Alcina Franch, 545) (Although) Still not officially accepted, the foreign loanwords ‘stand’,‘golf’, ‘girl’ are invariable …

b) Practice
Translate into English [Reference: 5.3.7.2]

58.Todas estas hipótesis están aún sin comprobar … (L. Fernández Briones, 209)
53. La calle Astillero se encuentra en una zona sin asfaltar…
(ABC semanal, 19-9-74)
59. Todavía tengo sin pagar los plazos de muchas cosas de que los míos disfrutan. (E. Acevedo, 1971a: 261)
60. Los más conservadores pensaban que esa novela sin nacer mostraría un carácter ejemplar, heroico o épico… (D. Pérez Minik, 260)
61. … seguía sin comprender cómo era posible que una mujer como ella fuera capaz de decir palabras de amor a su marido y a mí… (E. Sábato, Arg, 1965: 83)
62. José Arcadio Buendía, sin comprender lo que decía su esposa, descifró la firma. (G. García Márquez, Colom, 1970: 54)

4.
a) Analysis and examples: 5.5.2
The patterns tener + adjective + noun and tener + noun + adjective are particularly used in the description of mental and physical characteristics or states. Literal translation by to have is not always possible or advisable. In such cases, alternative translation pattern will be with:
(his / my, etc.) + noun + is / was + adjective).
This may entail the conversion of the Spanish object into the English subject and, often, the addition of a possessive adjective.

Tenía la nariz larga. (Ramsey, 131) He had a big nose. / His nose was big.
Tiene el pelo rojo. He has red hair. / His hair is red. / He is red-haired.
Tenía la cara roja, húmeda de sudor, el vestido sucio. (J. Fernández Santos, 1967: 83)
Her face was red, damp with sweat, and her dress was dirty.
-… parece ser que tengo un poco baja la tensión. (M. Mihura, 1967: 310)
… it seems that my blood pressure is a bit low.
-Esa muchacha me tiene loco, señora. (W. Beinhauer, 223) I’m mad / crazy about that girl.

b) Practice
Translate into English. [Reference: 5.5.2]

76. Tenía la cara llena de concavidades, como una calavera, a la luz de la única bombilla de la lámpara. (C. Laforet, 14)
77. En la redonda cara reposaban dos grandes ojos castaños y serenos, y pese al pelo rubio, cejas y pestañas las tenía negras. (A. Cunqueiro, 114)
78. El Giacondo, realias Cachondo, estaba como un Nazareno, clavado sobre su única muleta, la melena caída sobre el rostro, sudando. Tenía las manos, la boca y la nariz ensangrentadas.
(F. García Pavón, 1971b: 211)
79. Dentro del agua, pegado al limo, tenía bien abiertos los ojos, aguantando la respiración, mientras los mellizos me buscaban para ahogarme. (A. Roa Bastos, Parag, 1967: 23)

The above selection of examples give a rough idea of the contents of a practical e-textbook and reference work for translating from Spanish into English, or for improved comprehension of written Spanish.
The book, Spanish Translation Exercises and Tests With a Contrastive Analysis of Key Aspects of Spanish Syntax (Brian Steel, 2005), offers 6 chapters of detailed analyses of characteristic Spanish constructions and usage, accompanied by copious Supplementary Translation Exercises (1,200 examples). A seventh chapter contains a more challenging selection of translation exercises from various styles of Spanish (400 longer examples).

A further sample is offered here:

Other articles about the Spanish language are available on this web page: http://www.briansteel.net/articsylibros/index.html