Posted tagged ‘learning Hindi’

Translation 53. English Loanwords in Hindi. Lexical References

22 February 2016

This useful collection of annotated bibliographical information on Hindi/Urdu is posted here both as a further sample of my book English Loanwords in Hindi and (for those who do not need the book) as a further contribution to my blog series on Translation and Interpreting.

The Bibliography of the multi-faceted book is divided into Lexical References and General Bibliography (4 A-4 pages).

Lexical References (annotated)

Agnihotri, Rama Kant, Hindi. An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London & New York, 2006.

Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by Henk Wagenaar and Sangeeta S. Parikh (New Delhi, Allied Publishers Pvt., 2002 [1996.] [romanised],1167 pages ISBN 81-7764-357-6 Allied Chambers (India) Limited, Transliterated Hindi-English Dictionary, ed. Henk W. Wagenaar, New Delhi, Allied Chambers,1993 [reprint 2008], 1149 pp. ISBN 81-86062-10-6.
[romanised and alphabeticised, with a Glossary of Hindu Mythology (also romanised, pp. 903-1149)]
Bahri, Hardev, Rajpal Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols. Delhi, Rajpal Publishing, ?2006. ISBN 978-81-7028-667-7
This is an excellent (romanised) reference book, possibly the most helpful bilingual romanised dictionary for intermediate and advanced English-speaking learners of Hindi.
It is the only romanised Hindi-English dictionary of those I consulted in which the lexicographer has methodically tried to cover this important aspect of the contemporary Hindi language. (An updated version would be a welcome improvement.)

DK Visual Bilingual Dictionary of Hindi, New York, DK Publishing, 2008. [dk.com]
Based on a common template of English semantic areas and items (and photographs) for all the languages that the series covers, it is an excellent quick-reference source of many examples of technical anglicisms and everyday borrowings from English. One important caveat is that the Introduction informs readers: “Where no suitable Hindi words exist, or are not commonly used, we have retained the English words, but the romanization has been adapted to show how native Hindi speakers pronounce them” (p. 8).
Hindi/Urdu Flagship Program of the University of Texas (Austin) (Director: Professor Rupert Snell) Although the whole website is free for non-commercial use, this is a University level web-based series of teaching and learning aids for students and teachers who are aiming at an advanced professional competency in Hindi or Urdu. Among the large quantity of materials (including videos and Power Point presentations) is the series of podcasts on Spoken Thesaurus (also directed by Rupert Snell)

Kachru, Yamuna, Hindi, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2006.
Kumar, Arvind, Arvind Word Power. English-Hindi. A Dictionary with a Difference, New Delhi, Arvind Linguistics Private Limited, 2015. (1350 pages)
Kumar, Arvind and Kusum, The Penguin English-Hindi / Hindi-English Thesaurus, 3 vols., New Delhi, (Arvind Lingusitics Private Limited), 2007.
McGregor, R.S., Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1993.
McGregor, R.S., Outline of Hindi Grammar, 3rd ed. Revised and Enlarged, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Niladri, Shekhar Dash, Payel Dutta Chowdhury, Abhisek Sarkar (2009). ‘Naturalisation of English Words in Modern Bangla’, Language Forum , Vol. 35, Jul- Dec 2009.
Platts, John T., A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English, London, 1884.
Rahman, Tariq, From Hindi to Urdu: a Social and Political History, Karachi, Oxford University Press, 2011. (Note: Professor Rahman’s website offers many downloads of his writings on this and other related topics.)
Schuermann: Volker Schuermann’s Bollywood Dictionary.
Available online: http://www.wupper.de/sites/unnet/bolly-dictionary.pdf
Shabdkosh Forums: especially for Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi. (Shabdkosh also offers very useful online dictionaries.)
Snell, Rupert, ‘The Hidden Hand: English Lexis, Syntax and Idiom as Determinants of Modern Hindi Usage’, South Asia Research, 1990, 10, 53-68.
(For some academic institutions, available from http://sar.sagepub.com/content/10/1/53.citation)
(To see a read-only copy: Google Search: C.L. Anand, The Constitution of India, choose the Google sample Item, which opens on this article (pp. 74-90). Or, Google Search: David Arnold and Peter Robb, Institutions and Ideologies. A SOAS South Asia Reader. Then open the item from “books.google.com.au”.)
(This is a very important study, worth re-issuing, in which Snell presents a cornucopia of detailed evidence on the massive influence of English on Hindi. The rapid growth of borrowings and the spread of Hinglish over the followng 20 years was to reinforce his thesis, leading to his equally excellent survey (and Trojan Horse warning) in the edited results of the ‘Chutnefying’ Conference: ‘Hindi: Its Threatened Ecology and Natural Genius’, pp. 22-36, in Rita Kothari and Rupert Snell (eds.) 2011. [q.v.]
Snell, Rupert, Teach Yourself Essential Hindi Dictionary, USA, McGraw-Hill, 2011.
Snell, Rupert and Simon Weightman, Teach Yourself Hindi, [2nd. ed.], London, Hodder education, 2003.[There is a different first ed., Hodder and Stoughton, 1989.]
Snell, Rupert with Simon Weightman, Teach Yourself Complete Hindi, USA, McGraw-Hill, 2010.
Steel, Brian: On WordPress and briansteel.net.
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2014/12/23/translation-49-french-loanwords-in-english-pronunciation-guide-for-hindi-speakers-introduction/
https://www.briansteel.net/writings/india/bsteelhindi3_suffixes, pdf/
Suntharesan, V., The Impact of Borrowings from English on Jaffna Tamil. (A Textbook for University Students, Language in India, Vol. 14, 6 June 2014. (A downloadable 125-page book)
Urdulist: Urdu listserv.
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Translation 43. Learner’s Guide to Hindi Suffixes. Introduction

30 June 2013

This article in the Handy Hindi Hints series is about Hindi suffixes (and other word ending constituents). It is the companion of my recent article on Hindi prefixes (et al), aimed at fellow learners of Hindi as a Second Language. If you missed that one it is still there.

These articles and their copious examples are the fruit of my own ongoing documented struggle with the Hindi language. They have been composed for my own benefit as a shortcut to comprehending the (alien to Anglos) Hindi lexicon. As before, I am happy to share this detailed information with other learners of Hindi as a Second Language. hoping that more knowledgeable readers will assist us all by suggesting corrections and additions to further ease our painful but invigorating linguistic Himalayan climb.

In view of the scope and length of this analysis of suffixes (29 pages, with several hundred examples and translations), those who feel interested enough in the topic already can access the .pdf on my language website (www.briansteel.net). For others, especially those who are not sure if my offering may be of use to them, I present the following basic examples of Hindi word families and a few short extracts from the pdf.

The full version is available here.
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Hindi Word Families

As a preliminary exercise, let us consider the following Hindi word families, which give an idea of the wide lexical scope to be covered in this compilation. They also show, better than any description, how helpful it is to be able to know the meaning of suffixes and other lexical endings available in the Hindi language.

1. darshan

darshan, m, sight, seeing, view
darshan karnaa, to see, visit

adarshan, invisible
darshaanaa, to exhibit, show
darshak, m, bystander, visitor, spectator,
darshan shaastr, philosophy
darshanik, philosophical
darshee, observer, seer
darshit, shown, displayed
darshneey, noticeable, worth seeing (YK, 125)
doordarshan, m, television
doordarshee, farsighted
doordarsheetaa, farsightedness, sagacity
adoordarshitaa, shortsightednesss
maargdarshan, m, guidance
nidarshak, illustrative, demonstrator
nidarshan, m, example, illustration
observer
paardarshitaa, f, transparency
paridarshan, m, panoramic view
pathpradarshak, m, leader, guide
pradarshan, m, show, demonstration, performance
pratham pradarshan, premiere
pratyaksh darshan, m, firsthand view
satdarshee, m, seer of truth
sudarshan, good-looking, elegant
virodh pradarshan karnevaale, protesters, demonstrators

2. sukh

sukh, m. happiness, pleasure
sukhee, happy
sukhkaarak, pleasant
sukhjanak, giving pleasure
sukhdaataa, sukhdaayinee (f), giving pleasure
sukhpoorvak, happily
sukhvaad, hedonism
sukhvaadee, hedoinist

3. vichaar

vichaar, m, thought, idea
vichaaraatmak, thoughtful
vichaarak, thinker
vichaararth, discussion
vichaardhaaraa, f, ideology
vichaardhaaraaparak, ideological
vichaarheen, thoughtless, unthinking
vichaarneey, worth considering
vichaarpoorn, thoughtful
vichaarpoorvak, thoughtfullY
vichaarsheel, thoughtful
vichaarsheeltaa, f, thoughtfulness
vichaarvaad, idealism
vichaarvaadee, m/f, idealist
vichaarvaan, thoughtful

vaichaarik, thoughtful, ideological
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Word formation processes: 4 examples from the full study.

From Part 1 (Functional word endings)

-ee
1.
-ee, f, abstract nouns (from nouns or adjectives)
choree, f, theft (chor, m, thief)
daaktaree, f, medical profession
dostee, f, friendship
mazdooree, f, labourer’s wage

With adjectives
beemaaree, f, illness
bahadooree, f, bravery (bahaadur, brave)
giraftaaree, f, arrest
eemandaaree, f, honesty
hoshiyaaree, f, intelligence

2. Invariable adjectives and nouns

A. Origin or affiliation (nouns and adjectives)

amreekee, American
banarsee, from Benares (Varanasi)
bhaaratvaasee, Indian citizen
cheenee, Chinese
gujraatee, Gujarati
islaamee, Islamic <islaam?
madraasee, from Madras
paNjaabee, Punjabi
roosee, Russian
videshee, foreign, foreigner

B. agents and “doers”, -er, -ist, etc.

adhikaaree, m, official, officer
adhohastaaksharee, the undersigned
shaastree, scientist
telee, oil worker

C. Other invariable nouns and adjectives

asarkaaree, non-governmental
(Note also: asarkaaree [asar+kaaree], effective)
bhrashtaachaaree, m, corrupt person
dhanee, wealthy (person)
hridayasparshee, heart-touching
krodhee, angry
nivaasee, inhabitant(s)
phaujee, military
sukhee, happy
zarooree, urgent, important, necessary

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From Part 1

-pan
Abstract nouns, masculine : -ness, -hood, etc.

akelaapan, m, feeling of loneliness
bachpan, childhood,
gaNjapan, baldness
kachchaapan, rawness
kalaapan, blackness
khoklaapan, m, hollowness
khulepan, openness (khulaa, open, clear)
motapan, fatness
nayaapan, novelty
paagalpan, madness
pakkaapan, thoroughness
peelaapan, yellowness
samajhpan, understanding
uneeNdaapan, m, drowsiness
vidhvaapan, m, widowhood
vigyaapan, advertisement

From Part 2 (Labels)

-kaar

Very productive
(For -kaaree as an adjectival suffix, see Part 4.)

chaayaakaar, m, photographer
chitrakaar, painter, artist, designer
geetkaar, lyricist
kahaanikaar, m, story writer
kalaakaar, m, artist
koshkaar, lexicographer
lekhakkaar, accountant (lekhak, writer/author)
moortikaar, sculptor
naatakkaar, m, dramatist, playwright
patrkaar, journalist <
rachnaakaar, m. author, creator
saNgeetkaar, musician
vaastukaar, m, architect
vivrankaar, m, commentator
yaNtrakaar, mechanic

Note
The noun kartaa (doer, maker) is also used as a suffix.
kaaryakartaa, m, worker, activist
niyaNtrankartaa, m, controller
peshkartaa, m, presenter
saakshaatkaarkartaa, m, interviewer

From Part 3 Descriptive elements (Things get even more interesting from here on.)
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(The first of the 4 main descriptive suffixes: -ik, -ak, -eey, -it)

(consonant +) -ik

The number ONE descriptive suffix is -ik, often equivalent to the English suffix -al
or -ic (or -ical) which, coincidentally, it closely resembles homophonically. It is usually attached directly to a noun, e.g. samaaj, society + ik > samaajik, social.

aadhaarik, basic
aadhunik, modern (
aanubhavik, empirical
aanukramik, sequential
aanuvarnik, alphabetical ?
aatmik, spiritual
adhyaatmik, spiritual
aaraMbhik, initial, early, preliminary
aarthik, economic, financial
aastik, believer
akaalik, inopportune
dharmik, religious
maasik, monthly
paarasparik, reciprocal
raajneetik, political
samaarik, strategic
samaajik, social
shareerik, bodily, physical (body)
upyogik, useful (pr upi-)
varshik, annual
vyapaarik, business atr., trade atr.

Notes
1. Standard vowel changes occur:
i > ai; e > ai; u > au ; o and oo > au

alaukik, unwordly, non-secular
amaulik, unoriginal
anaitik, unethical
itihaas (history) > itihaisik
pauranik, legendary
vaigyaanik, scientist
vaikalpik, optional
vaicharik, thoughtful, idealogical
vaitanik, salaried. paid
vaideshik, foreign
*

From Part 4

-poorvak
From poorv, full. It is used to form adverbs.

aadaarpoorvak, respectfully
adhikaarpoorvak, authoritative, with authority
dhyaanpoorvak, carefully
kushalpoorvak, safely
nishchaypoorvak, firmly
prempoorvak, lovingly, agreeably
shaNtipoorvak, peacefully
sukhpoorvak, happily
suvidhaapoorvak, conventionally
veerpoorvak, valiantly, heroically
vichaarpoorvak, thoughtfully
yuktipoorvak, skilfully
vishvaaspoorvak, confidently
*

From Part 5

-yog

Highly productive of masculine nouns and, with common suffixes like -ik, adjectives also.

aayog, m, a commission (body)
abhiyog, accusation
asahyog, m, non-cooperation
durupyog, improper use, wasteful
manoyog, m, concentration, single-mindedness
niyog, m, employment
prayog, m, use; experiment
pratiyogaa/ee, competitor
pratiyogitaa, competition
sahyog, cooperation
sahyogtaa, support
sahyogee, assistant, colleague, ally
saMyogik, accidental, fortuitous
suyog, m, happy chance, serendipity
udyog, industry [scr.]
udyogpati, industrialist
upyog, use (pr. upiyog)
upyogee, useful, helpful
upyogitaa, f, usefulness, suitability
viyog, separation

Note
-yogya, -able <yogya, able, worthy
niryogya, disabled
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Well, there you are! The above and another 20+ pages are available here. As a potential shortcut to achieving wider comprehension of the ‘alien’ Hindi lexicon, the broad system of suffixes and suggested translations offered in this compendium is surely worth attention.

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Reference List

Agnihotri, Rama Kant, Hindi. An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London & New York, 2006. (pp. 57-75 provide an original analysis of suffixes.)
Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by Henk Wagenaar and Sangeeta S. Parikh, New Delhi, Allied Publishers, 1996.

Bahri, Hardev, Rajpal Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols., Delhi, Rajpal Publishing, 2011.
(This is possibly the most helpful bilingual romanised dictionary for intermediate and advanced English-speaking learners of Hindi.)

Kachru, Yamuna, Hindi, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2006. (pp. 114-127 are crammed with concise information which I have quoted directly for a small number of those suffixes which I have not met.

Koul, Omkar N., Modern Hindi Grammar, Springfield, VA, Dunwoody Press, 2008, pp. 69-72).
This work is available for download from
Professor Koul at iils.delhi@gmail.com)

McGregor, R. S., Outline of Hindi Grammar, OUP, 3rd. ed., 1995. His treatment of suffixes (pp 211-214) is a very useful starting point on this topic and the author’s treatment of the -saa particle (pp. 161-163) is particularly helpful.
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Translation 42. Learner’s Guide to Hindi Prefixes and word formation. Introduction

20 May 2013

The full 20-page study, with 800 examples (and a fuller Introduction), is available here.
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Hindi word formation is a wide and complex lexical and morphological field. The following two studies will cover some aspects of word formation of special interest and potential benefit for learners of Hindi as a Second Language. They are offered in Draft form, in the hope that those more knowledgeable will send me their corrections and suggestions in order to make this amateur compilation more accurate and useful for myself and for fellow intermediate students of Hindi.
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After four years of study, I remain deeply engaged in a time- and energy-sapping struggle with this fascinating but quite difficult foreign language. Some of my previous language-learning strategies have proved very useful in keeping me on a slowly productive learning curve but the extreme foreignness of Hindi script, vocabulary, morphology and grammar has presented a formidable linguistic Himalayan range to scale and here I am, still exploring the foothills. All these Handy Hindi Hints articles are therefore basically for my own benefit, but the considerable work involved makes the results potentially worth sharing with others on the same long trek.

One of the special difficulties for speakers of English (and many other languages) is that Hindi vocabulary does not offer any of the usual convenient and comforting ‘toeholds’ or mnemonics which are available to us in our attempts to speed up comprehension of the foreign languages we are most likely to learn: the European Romance Languages. A large quantity of words passed down from Latin are still easily and instantly comprehensible to us in these languages.

This applies most particularly to those words and word families containing familiar prefixes and suffixes, like con-, dis-, mis-, pre-, pro-, un- etc.
and
-ate, -ary, -ful, -ive, -ous, -sion, -tion, etc.

As a simple example of the practical value of this shared knowledge, take the word constitution with its prefix, con- and suffix, -tion. In many countries of Europe, and beyond, the corresponding term is instantly identified (especially in its written form):
constitution (French), constitución, costituzione, constituição, constitució and constituție, etc. Equal similarities apply to most other words containing the affixes con- and -tion and, indeed, to many other cognate Latin (and other) prefixes and suffixes.

This is a valuable learning advantage that the second language learner probably takes for granted while wrestling with the many very real problems of the foreign language.

In learning Hindi, however, NONE of these basic similarities exist and as a consequence, most native Hindi words have to be individually committed to memory. This is such a huge task that the only way to make satisfactory progress is to find shortcuts.

One obvious strategy is to systematise one’s lexical acquisitions by studying the morphology of Hindi word formation in order to build up an appreciation of Hindi word families by memorising common prefixes, suffixes and other frequently used word-compounding elements like those I shall be introducing in this academically unorthodox but (I hope) learner-friendly study.

This article and the following one will deal with detailed analyses of these two types of word formation in Hindi.

1. Words which consist of the addition of a particle (prefix) or an existing word to an existing word or ‘word base’ to form semantically related words.

2. Other selected word formations which consist of a suffix, or compounding word or element appended to an existing word. These words and compounds will be the subject of my next article.

Acknowledgements
(See Reference List for publishing details.)

In my study of the lexicon of written and spoken media Hindi, I have been especially aided by the authors of two excellent bilingual romanised dictionaries:

Hardev Bahri, Rajjpal Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols., Delhi, Rajpal Publishing, 2011. (In Vol. 2, there are Appendices on Prefixes (upsarg) on pp. 1767-1771 and on Suffixes (pratyay) on pp. 1772-1778.)

Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by Henk Wagenaar and Sangeeta S. Parikh
(New Delhi, Allied Publishers, 1996.)

For some months I have also had the luxury of referring to the bilingual Hindi and English Thesaurus by Arvind Kumar (both the online version and the printed one) and in the last three months, I have also benefitted from the recent research and romanised renderings offered in Dr. Badrinaath Kapoor’s Advanced Hindi-English Dictionary (New Delhi, Prabhaat Prakaashan, 2007).

Of the Hindi grammars I have consulted, the most thorough treatment of prefixes and suffixes is in Professor Yamuna Kachru’s magisterial study, Hindi (John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2006, Chapter 8, ‘Word Formation’, pp 111-129. This very densely packed chapter also deals with other characteristic forms of lexical compounding in Hindi which learners need to know.

Also invaluable in my initial Hindi studies and as a constant reference point was R.S.McGregor’s enduring classic analysis, Outline of Hindi Grammar, OUP, 3rd. ed., 1995. His treatment of word formation affixes (pp 207-215) is a useful starting point on these topics.

I am also grateful to my tutor, Indramohan Singh, for timely answers to a series of last-minute queries.

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Selected Hindi Prefixes and Other Initial Compounding Elements

Classification
(Definitions in inverted commas are from Yamuna Kachru.)

1. Negatives, antonyms, opposition

a-, “not, without”
an-, ana-, “not, without”
ap-
bad-
be-
duh- : + dur-, dush- “bad, difficult”
gair
ku-, “bad, deficient”
laa-
naa-
ni-
nih-, nir-, nis-, nish-, “without”
par- other
prati- 1. against
vi-. 1. “different, opposite”
[vi-2, : See’Section 5.]

2. Positive

su-, good
sat-, sad-, true
dharm (COMPOUND)

3. Number, quantity, size

alp (COMPOUND), small
adh-, and ardh-, half
bahu- ( C ) multi-, poly-
ek-, one
du- (do-), two-
dvi-, two, twin
tri-, three-

4. References to place, position, order and time (similar to some English prepositions and prefixes)

(The brief introductory glosses in inverted commas given below are from Professor Yamuna Kachru, pp. 112- 113 and 124-125.)

aa-, “to, toward, up to”
abhi-, “toward, intensity”
adhi-, “additional, above”
[adho-, lower]
aNtah, aNtar, “inter”
anu-, “after”
ap-. “away, off, down”
ati-, “excessive”
av-, “away, diminution”
door-, far, distant
[nav-, new(ly), neo-]

pari-, “around, whole”
[poorv-, (time): former, previous
(place): east(ern)]
pra-, 1. before, pre-, forward
[pra-, 2. excellent. supreme. See Section 5.]
[punah and punar-, [re-]

up(a)-, up(i)-, “subordinate”
ut, ud-, un-, “upward”
[sah-, with, co-]
[baa-, containing, with]
saN-, with, together
[san- / sam-, same, equal]

5. Intensity or degree

[poorn-, full(y)]
pra- 2. “forward, excess”
[vi- 2. completely]
[saarv-, sarv-, all-]

6. Similar COMPOUND elements indicating scale, rank and intensity

madhya-, ( C), medium, middle-
madhyam, ( C), medium
mukhya- . chief, main
raaj-, royal
vishva ( C), universal, world

7. Personal

aatma- ( C), self-
sva(a)-, self, own
praan- ( C), life-
yog ( C), combination, joining, yoga
mano-, mental, psycho-

8. Selected productive compounding words

8.1 Elements

agni ( C), fire
bhoo, ( C) and bhoomi ( C), land, soil
jal ( C ), water
vaayu ( C) air

8.2 People

jan ( C ), people
lok ( C), people
jeev ( C), & jeevan ( C)
jaat ( C) & jaati ( C)
arth, ( C), money; meaning
raashtra, (C ) nation

8.3 Action Compounds

kaarya ( C), work, action
kriyaa ( C) action
krit-, done

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All these are examined and illustrated in detail as a vocabulary-building exercise on my Hindi web page. Approximately 800 examples and translations are given as well as glosses for the ‘base word’ to which the prefix or other element is added.

Translation 41. Hindi Learning Hints 4. English Loanwords in Contemporary Hindi

29 January 2013

Introduction to a Glossary of 2,000 Hindi Words and Expressions of English origin

As I have recently pointed out here,
the growing phenomenon of Hinglish as a hybrid language has aroused public interest and is the subject of academic research. Since Hinglish is widely used by urban Indians (especially young ones and especially in the northern ‘Hindi belt’), by advertisers, and by Bollywood, Hinglish does not lack media publicity. With its impressive linguistic gymnastics, code-switching and code-mixing of Hindi and English at a very fast colloquial rate, Hinglish well deserves continued professional study and tracking because it may have a strong long-term impact on the shape of Hindi. However, from the viewpoint of teaching practical Hindi as a Second Language (HSL), especially to non-Indians, it is not of vital concern at the moment. What does need incorporating into HSL now, via Hindi to foreign language dictionaries and other teaching materials, is a selection of the extraordinary large number of loanwords and loan translations (calques) from English which have already entered into contemporary daily life, and on which Hinglish is partly based.

This sizeable windfall of English Hindi words for lucky English speakers is entirely due to the very special historical links between Hindi and English. In contemporary Hindi, English loan words and phrases have become an essential part of contemporary Hindi. They are taken for granted by Hindi speakers.

Most of the items in this selection will not help students much with conversations in the street or booking a train ticket (although tren and tikat are two very commonly used borrowings, as is a whole family of words based on relrail). The borrowings are, however, useful for English speakers to begin to understand bits and pieces of the spoken and written Hindi currently used by the media and in bureaucratic life as well as by the Indian middle classes in their daily conversation. (Many are also understood by Indians from other social backgrounds.) There are many more of these anglicisms to be picked up as you listen to or read the media or watch Bollywood films.

My credentials are a lifetime interest in language, lexicography, and teaching, and four years as a keen student of HSL (for the purposes of comprehension of written and spoken current affairs in India, rather than as a means of personal communication, which can be more efficiently achieved in English). In the process of this arduous learning experience, I have sought shorcuts. In addition to my personal Romanised Glossary of Hindi words, I have compiled two separate lexical collections, the major one being this list of 2,000 English loanwords encountered in contemporary urban Hindi, and a minor but substantial collection of acronyms used in Hindi, which are also based on the English phonetic system and are therefore instantly recognisable to “us” – like bee.je.pee (BJP), see.bee.aaee (CBI), bee.bee,see, BBC, etc. The smaller acronym collection consists of two types: entities restricted to India and other more universal references, which are also of importance to foreign learners, as well as to native Hindi speakers. The short acronym glossary will be published soon in this series, as ‘Hindi Learning Hints, 5’. (Parts 2 and 3, on Affixes (a VERY essential shortcut for serious students of any language), are still in preparation.) A few very common acronyms, familiar to urban Hindi speakers (and others), are included in the present list.

Notes on the Devanagari and Roman scripts and on my transliteration system

English speakers have an advantage over other HSL learners because of the extraordinary capacity of Hindi phonetics to present near equivalents of almost all English sounds. (This is just not possible with French, Spanish, etc.) The English loans sound like Hindi to Hindi speakers but they also (usually) sound like English and so are instantly recognisable for us in the flow of speech. Although this helps a little in the comprehension process, for most foreign learners, Hindi is a very distant cousin, twice removed, in lexicon (virtually NO cognate words) and in its arcane syntax.

Because of my inbred ‘Roman’ bias, I have found reading Hindi to be a major issue, so my simple transliteration system has been tailored to allow speedy transfer of the Devanagari script to Roman script, for writing and typing. In my opinion, this system also allows more efficient transfer to Internet bilingual translating and transliteration aids, such as those offered by Google and Microsoft. For these purposes, the short ŏ sound of English (as in ‘box’, and ‘Bollywood’) is often best represented by the digraph ‘au’.

Using a capital N or M for nasals seemed a good idea and my laborious attempts to distinguish with italics between various alternative sounds and spellings (Hindi’s multiple t’s, th’s, d’s, dh, r, rh, sh, n, h, and ri, etc.) do seem to work. In short, I find this system more practical and easier to read than some of the official transliteration schemes.

To allow the English words to ‘emerge’ from the transliterations below, simply pronounce what you see. Some may amuse you; smile while you learn!

Here Hindi ‘ee’ is equivalent to ‘ee’ in English, but single ‘e’ rhymes with ‘rate’, or sometimes with ‘ten’. So ‘pee.em.’ in Hindi is pronounced more or less as P.M. Similarly, ‘tren‘ = train, and ‘em.e.‘ is M.A. (‘aim-eh’). The very frequent double vowel ‘aa+ee’ rhymes with ‘my’ or ‘high’: hence Hindi ‘haaee kort‘ (High Court), or ‘aaee.e.ess.‘ (IAS: I = aaee; A = e; S = ess, the Indian Administrative Service).

Also the letter ‘v’ is often pronounced as a soft version of ‘w’, as in ‘vikeeleeks’. Do not be distracted by the lack of capital letters in the transliterations. That is the Devanagari alphabet in action. Also, for your and my convenience, I have not used Devanagari alphabetical order. I am sorry if that offends language purists but this makes it easier for me to cope with a daunting task.

Although most of the items below are single lexical items, special notice should be given to those marked (EH). These are hybrid English-Hindi phrases, which give a very fleeting glimpse of the sorts of ways in which Hindi speakers can assimilate some English words into the Hindi morphological system (the commonest case being combinations of English loan + karnaa, to form compound verbs, which, as Rupert Snell (1990, p.55) has pointed out, are constantly being coined. denaa and honaa also appear in such hybrid compounds.

To obtain a Devanagari version of any (or most) of the words and phrases listed below, type them into the Google or Microsoft ‘Hindi to English’ box and press Enter (for each word).

The extent to which English permeates Hindi is perhaps most easily visible in the use of English initial letters not only for acronyms but for Hindi names. Note that each (English) letter is followed by a full stop (period). This is particularly important if entering a search term on Wikipedia in Hindi, e.g, Pee. Jee. Chidambaran प.ग. चिदंबरम

And, for even more instant evidence of English penetration of the Hindi system, here is the frequently used English alphabet as it appears in Hindi, for example in Hindi acronyms.
*

e. , A
bee. , B
see. , C
dee. , D
ee. , E
ef, , F
gee. , G
ech. , H
aaee. , I
je. , J
ke. , K
el. , L
em. , M
en. , N
o. , O
pee. , P
kyoo. , Q
aar. , R
es. , S
tee. , T
yoo. , U
vee. , V
dablyoo, , W
eks. , X
vaaee. , Y
zed. , Z
(zee. , Z – USA)
*

English loanwords, a sample:

My 2,000 item collection covers most aspects of contemporary Indian life. Many have been carried over from Imperial times but the majority are post-Independence coinages.

karnaa, honaa, denaa compounds:

aapreshan karnaa, to operate
kvaalifaaee karnaa, to qualify
dismis karnaa, to dismiss
distarb karnaa, to disturb
iNvaait karnaa, to invite
iNfaurm karnaa, to inform
saspaiNd karnaa, to suspend

paas honaa, to pass (exam)
naurmalaaeez honaa, to normalise

riport denaa, to report
vot denaa, to vote

From English -tion, -sion

standiNg oveshan, standing ovation
steshan, station
aupreshan, operation
peNshan, pension
blad doneshan, blood donation

Countries and nationality

aarjenteenaa, Argentina
briten, Britain
dubaaee, Dubai
eerak, Iraq
iNglaiNd, England
landan, London
polaiNd, Poland
saaipras, Cyprus
svis, Swiss
svitserlaiNd, Switzerland
thaaeelaiNd, Thailand
vetikan (sitee), The Vatican, V. City
yoo.pee., UP (Uttar Pradesh)
yookren, Ukraine
yoorap, Europe

Personal

baig, bag,
fan, fan; seeliNg fan, ceiling fan
kaimra, camera
peNsil, f, pencil
plag, plug
saiNtimeetar, centimetre, centimeter
shatar, m, shutter
sileNdar, (gas) cylinder
suparmarkat, supermarket

Food and drink

saiNdvich, sandwich
tost, toast
sodaavaatar, soda water
tee baig, teebag
aaisd tee, iced tea
aaisd vaalee chaaee, iced tea (EH)
aaiskreem, icecream
aamlet, omelette
chuiNgam, chewing gum
vetar, waiter

Travel and transport

kaar, f, car
start karnaa, to start (car, etc.)
deezal, diesel
eyarport, airport
steshan, station
bas, bus; bas adda, bus station
rel, rail; relve, railway
rel bhavan, railway office(s) (EH)
ekpatraa rel, monorail (EH)
tez gati rel, hidhspeed rail (EH)
relgaree, f, train
tren, train
rel maarg, (railway) track
riNg rod, Ring Road

tikat, ticket
tikat baaboo, ticket clerk

taiksee, taxi
taikseevaalaa, taxi-driver
meetar se chalo!, drive by the meter (taxi/rickshaw)
veezaa, visa
traival ejensee, travel agency

Media, Films & Internet

rediyo, radio
teevee, TV
satalaait dish, satellite dish

seeriyal, serial, and cereal
veediyo, video
film , f, film
futej, footage
kaimraa, camera
bauleevud, Bollywood,
suparstar, suparstar

iNtarnet, Internet
kampyootar, computer
hardveyar, hardware
aakaash taiblet, Sky Tablet (Indian)
sauftveyar, software
sim kard, Sim card
priNt kareN, Print!
storee ko ret kareN, Rate this story

mobaail, mobile phone
sailfon, mobile phone, cellphone

Education

vee.see., V.C. (Vice Chancellor)

Sport

krikat, cricket
vikat, wicket
aaut!, Out! (cricket)
ampayar, umpire
refaree, referee,
maichfiksiNg, matchfixing
saspaiNd karnaa, to suspend
rikaard tornaa, to break a record(EH)
vestiNdees, West Indies
olampik (kheloN), Olympic (Games) (EH)
besbaul, baseball

Careers and Offices

kareeyar, career
aarkitekt, architect
kamishnar, Commissioner
depyootee kamishnar, Deputy Commissioner
pee.em., P.M.
see.em., C.M (Chief Minister (of a State)
iNjaneeyar, engineer
baaristar,, barrister
mejar jenral, major general
freelaiNs, freelance
kaimraman, camera man
klarkee, f, clerical job (EH)

Commerce

baiNk, bankl; b. akaauNt, b. account
vishva baiNk, World Bank
chaik, cheque
daalar, dollar
hed ofis, head office
siNdiket, syndicate
sentar, Centre

tredmark, trademark
shedyool, schedule
sheyar markat, share market
sheyar bazaar, share market (EH)

taiks, tax
teNdar, tender
pepar klip, paper clip

Medical

iNjekshan, injection
blad, blood; b. preshar, b. pressure
chaikap, check-up
terapee, therapy
hart atak, heart attack
kainsar, cancer; kainsar vigyaan, oncology
teebee, TB
eds, AIDS
veNtiletar, breathing apparatus; life support,

Technical

taiknolojee, technology
seedee., CD
teevee, TV
ilaktranik, electronic
voltej, voltage
shart sarkat, short circuit
jenretar, generator
sailseeas, Celsius
laiNs, lens
staurm vautar drenej, storm water drainage

Science

maiNgneez, m, manganese
global varmiNg, global warming
gobar gais, methane from cow dung (EH)
phaaspharas, phosphorus
plaastik, plastic

Administration, Politics and Law

sartificat, m, certificate
iNdaiks, index
sabsidee, subsidy

vipaksh leedar, Leader of the Opposition
lokpaal bil, ombusdsman Bill/. Law (EH)
bil paas, the passing of a Bill
pulis, police
chaarj sheet, f, charge sheet
laain auf kantrol, Line of Control (Kashmir)

Miscellaneous

bilyan, billion
pop, the Pope
aarkestraa, orchestra
janvaaree, January
sitaMbar, september
aktoobar, October
disaMbar, December
etc.
pistaul, pistol
bam, bomb
*

A further alphabetical sample is available here:
‘Basic Hindi Vocabulary for Lucky English Speakers’

*
The above selection represents just one tenth of my (Romanised) alphabetical list of 2,000 selected English loanwords (not exhaustive by any means) which will shortly be available by email as a .pdf document to those who are particularly interested in the phenomenon. (ompukalani AT hotmail.com)

For those of you who will not see the full document, I would like to share my Acknowledgments for this whole project since there are references which may be of special use to you, as they were to me.

Acknowledgements

Over the two and a half years of my search for English loanwords, etc. I have gleaned vital information from many written sources (dictionaries, grammars, and articles on the Hindi language), which substantially supplemented my own intensive observations of media and Internet usage.

I am grateful to my Hindi tutor, Mr Indramohan Singh, for his constant help and encouragement.

I was also extremely fortunate to come across three immensely useful sources of English borrowings in Hindi. From these three sources, my collection was boosted by several hundred examples, even though I made a judicious selection of their offerings.

My very special sources were:

Hardev Bahri’s Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary (2 vols.). This is an excellent (and Romanised) reference book, the only Hindi dictionary of those I consulted which has methodically tried to cover this important aspect of the contemporary Hindi language. (An updated version would be most welcome.)

Volker Schuermann’s Bollywood Dictionary – available online.
and the
DK Visual Bilingual Dictionary of Hindi, which deals realistically and in great depth with the nomenclature of everyday life. [dk.com]
*

Translation 39. A Short Reference List for Hindi learners & Notes on the suffix vaalaa / wallah

4 November 2012

 A copy of this Reference List for English-speaking learners of Hindi has recently been published at the end of  Item 1 of Hindi Learning Hints on my language website. This extensive analysis is based on my learning curve in relation to the important Hindi suffix vaalaa (aka vala or wallah).

In an item referred to in the Reference List below (goindia.about.com), Sharell Cook introduces vaalaa to would-be travellers to India with this useful thumbnail sketch:

“This word is notorious for its different meanings and spellings. Most visitors to India know it in the context as it refers to a seller or vendor of something. For example, a taxi-wala is a taxi driver. A vegetable-wala is a vegetable seller. However, wala can be combined with the name of a town or city to indicate someone who comes from there. For example, Mumbai-wala or Delhi-wala. Wala can also be used to specify a certain thing. For example, chota-wala means small one, lal-wala means red one, kal-wala means yesterday’s one. Finally it can be used to indicate something as about to happen in the immediate future. Ane-vala means about to come or about to arrive. Jane-wala means about to go or about to leave.” (‘5 Common but often confusing Hindi words’. See goindia.about.com in the List below.)

*

Hindi vaalaa is, in fact, a much more complex and a very frequently met phenomenon. Since bilingual dictionaries tend not to help with this basically morphological matter, grammars and other descriptions need to be consulted for an idea of the wide scope of the usage, especially for improved comprehension and translation purposes. For those interested, my vaalaa comprehension and translation analysis is available here.

*

A Short Reference List for English-speaking Learners of Hindi

Grammars

Agnihotri, Rama Kant. Hindi. An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London and New York, 2006.
McGregor, R. S. Outline of Hindi Grammar, 3rd edition, New Delhi, 1995.   
Shapiro, Michael C. A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1989.
Snell, Rupert, Teach Yourself Beginner’s Hindi. London, Hodder Headline and USA, McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Dictionaries and other Lexical Studies

Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, ed. Sangeeta S. Parikh, New Delhi, Allied, 2002. (with Romanised transliterations) 
Bahri, Hardev, Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols, New Delhi, Rajpal, 1999. (with Romanised transliterations) (HB)

Bulcke, Father Camille, Hindee-AaNgrezee Kosh, Catholic Press, Ranchi, 2008. [This appears to be a posthumous publication since the author died in 1982. His English-Hindi Dictionary, 1968, was highly acclaimed and is still in print. See Wikipedia for his distinguished career.]

Sinha, R. Mahesh K.  See  http://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/users/rmk/

http://en.bab.la/dictionary/hindi-english/
The site of a fabulous cornucopia of bilingual dictionaries in MANY languages. The Hindi-English dictionary has a very impressive number of vaalaa offerings. Far more than I have seen anywhere else, online or in print.  Bookmark it!

http://en.bab.la/dictionary/hindi-english/ Another very useful online lexical tool, with a lively forum, listed below.

For other useful references see librarian Salman Haider’s website pages, notably this one.

Thesaurus
Kumar, Arvind, The Penguin English-Hindi/Hindi-English Thesaurus and Dictionary.
For intermediate and advanced study of Hindi, this essential reference work is available for purchase from Arvind Lexicon: http://arvindlexicon.com/home
Also available there is The Arvind Lexicon Online Version (for an $18 annual subscription), and a smaller free version for visitors.

Hindi Corpus
The Center for Indian Language Technology (CFILT) Hindi Corpus
(Although not a very large corpus, and with an apparent preponderance of scientific texts, this is a treasure trove for any language researcher.)

Online Transliteration and Translation
(Indispensable aids for the wary contemporary user.)

Transliteration from English into Hindi: http://www.google.com/transliterate

Transliteration from Devanagari into Romanised Hindi:  http://www.hindidevanagari.com/transliteration/transliterate_to_latin.html
 
Google Translate (to, from, and between many languages): http://translate.google.com/
Microsoft BING Translator (to, from, and between many languages):  http://www.bing.com/translator/

Other useful websites for learners and students of Hindi

Also from CFILT: Indo-Wordnet. “A Wordnet of Indian Languages”: http://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in/indowordnet/index.jsp

A forum for questions on Hindi and English translation: http://www.shabdkosh.com/forums/viewforum/3/

http://www.wordreference.com  [another forum]

Learning_the_Language_in_India.htm/, with its helpful course recommendations, and language hints by Sharell Cook.

Professor Frances Pritchett of Columbia University has a labyrinthine and very stylish website on Urdu language and literature. For Hindi students there are many insights in his long series on the work of C. M. Naim.

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urduhindilinks/txt_naimbks.html

*

Note: The introduction to this series of Hindi shortcuts is available here, or here.

 

 

 

 

Translation 38. Hindi Learning Shortcuts. Introduction to a New Series

26 October 2012

Preliminary Note: This is the full Introduction to the series as it appears on my language website India page.

All subsequent articles in this series for English-speaking learners of Hindi will be briefly announced on this blog with a link to the full versions available only on that language website page.
*

Introduction to a series of Hindi Learning Hints

After spending most of my life learning, studying. using, teaching or writing about European languages, and after several visits to India, I decided four years ago that it was time to try to learn Hindi. My aim was not to be able to order a succulent curry or even to talk to Hindi-speaking Indians (who know infinitely more English than I will ever know Hindi) but to be able to follow what the Indian media and Indian citizens talk and write about. So the main criterion in selecting materials for this series was (and is) the achievement of greater comprehension of that language.

Four years older and wiser, I remain engaged in a time- and energy-sapping struggle with this fascinating but quite difficult language. Some of my previous language-learning strategies have proved very useful in keeping me on a slow learning curve but the real foreignness of Hindi vocabulary, morphology and grammar has presented a formidable linguistic Himalayan range to conquer. With Hindi there are none of the usual convenient and comforting ‘toeholds’ or mnemonics for “us”: all those familiar COGNATE European (latinate, and even germanic) words, prefixes and suffixes which are quickly recognisable to the English learner in a flow of Romance writing and speech (or even, to a much lesser extent, in German and Dutch).

One slight but interesting advantage has been the vast – and constantly growing – number of English loanwords used in educated and media Hindi. That will be the subject of a later Hindi Hints chapter. Another early chapter will deal with Hindi acronyms (with both local and international references) which, mainly because of a historical accident, are phonetically based on English. Hooray!

The planned series of hints and shortcuts for greater or speedier comprehension of Hindi by Anglo and other foreign learners has (at least) three motives:
1. To share some of my very hard-earned knowledge with other Anglo learners.
2. To encourage Hindi speakers and fellow Anglo learners of Hindi to point out my misunderstandings and to correct my errors.
3. To force myself to study and observe Hindi more carefully.

The Reference lists posted in each article will also point to those books or websites that I have found useful in learning Hindi, in particular in relation to transliteration of the difficult (but nowhere near the difficulty of Chinese script) Hindi Devanagari script, for quicker (romanised) deciphering.

I wish to express my special gratitude to my patient tutor, Indramohan Singh, who for the past three years has also acted as my translator, transliterator, interpreter and scientific advisor and has also supplemented my bilingual (romanised) dictionaries on the many occasions when they failed to enlighten me (or, perhaps, when I failed to locate the information in the exhausting labyrinth of the anti-firangi Devanagari alphabetical order). To give credit where credit is due, these life-saving lexicographical works were:
Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, Father Camille Bulcke’s posthumous Hindi-English Dictionary and, much more recently, the late Dr Hardev Bahri’s first-class 2-volume Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary) and, at the eleventh hour, Arvind Kumar’s HEROIC opus and life’s work, the Hindi AND English Thesaurus.

Nevertheless, the errors in this series of articles are entirely of my own making and I look forward to benefitting from readers’ corrections (and, perhaps, additions), which would be most welcome by me – and excellent karma for such benefactors.

Notes for the Series

1. My simplified Hindi transliteration system should not be too difficult to understand. One of its advantages is that it stands a reasonable chance of being recognised by transliteration systems like those of Google (for conversion into Devanagari script, where necessary). (Thank God for transliteration as a partial antidote to the Devanagari script, however artistic the latter may be!)

2. In most articles, an English alphabetical order for Hindi words (a further utilitarian desecration!) is deliberately used since it allows Anglos to make quick searches for words and also allows the speedy extraction of useful materials using the “Sort” and “Find” features of Microsoft WORD and other word processors. Without this subterfuge, I would not have been able to accumulate (and benefit from) my private 14,000 word romanised Hindi Glossary! Although totally artificial, this unorthodox Hindi word order thus speeds up reference work enormously for foreign learners.

Hindi Acronyms are based on English phonetics

4 December 2011

New legislation on FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) has been creating lively controversy in the Indian Parliament and in the streets. (See here and here.)

FDI is an official Hindi term but it is also pronounced as if it were an English acronym: F.D.I. – efdeeaaee. The same is true of all Indian acronyms, including those which are the initials of Hindi words (like BJP – beejepee – or RJD – aarjedee – below).

The following basic reference list of about 150 other Hindi (English) abbreviations which occur in the media may therefore be of use to those who follow Indian affairs from abroad. The interesting linguistic factor is, of course, that (like personal initials in Hindi, e.g. P. J. – Pee jay) they are based on the phonetics of English and the clear majority refer to English words, so once transliterated from the Devanagari script, they are recognisable as acronyms by English speakers. The meaning, or reference, of the acronyms, however, may need further investigation! It is evident that, given the nature of acronyms, Hindi speakers may be unaware of the English words represented, just as English speakers may not know, and, indeed, do not need to know, the exact constituents which have produced the acronyms, only the entity they refer to.
(The handful of glosses missing below will be supplied as soon as possible. Sooner if someone is kind enough to send them to me!)

[‘aaee’ = I.] [‘eee’ is either ee [E] plus e [A], or e [A] plus ee [E]

aaeeaaeetee, IIT = Indian Inst of Technology
aaeeeees, IAS, Indian Administrative Service: (‘Bharateey prashaasnik sevaa’)
aaeeefes, IFS, Indian Foreign Service
aaeeensee, INC. Indian National Congress [Party](The leading member of the current Government coalition. (See yoopeee, UPA.)
aaeeesaaee, 1. ISI (Pakistan) Inter-Services Intelligence
aaeeesaaee, 2. ISI, Indian Statistical Institute
aaeeesoh, ISO International Standard Organisation
aaeeseeaaee, ICI, Imperial Chemical Industries
aaeeseesee, ICC, International Cricket Council (‘antarrashtreeyaa krikat parishad’)
aaeeseeyoo, ICU Intensive Care Unit

aarbeeaaee, RBI, Reserve Bank of India
aardeeaaee, RDI, Rural Development Institute
aarjedee, RJD, Rashtreeya Janata Dal (Bihar) National People’s Party
aarpeeaaee, RPI, Republican Party of India
aarteeaaee, RTI, Right to Information

beeaaeees, BIS, Bureau of Indian Studies
beeesef, BSF, Border Security Force
beejepee, BJP, Bharaateeya Janata Party
beeemsee, BMC, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation
beeesee, BSE, Bombay Stock Exchange
beeesef, BSF, Border Security Force (Seema Surakshaa Bal)
beeespee, BSP, Bahujan Samaj Party (Society of the Majority of the People. The leading party in U.P. The Majority People are the Dalits and others.)
beejepee, BJP Bhaarateeys Janata Party (Indian People’s Party)
beeseeseeaaee, BCCI, Board of Control for Cricket in India

deeem, DM, District Magistrate
deeemaaeesee, DMIC, Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
deeemjee, DMG, Department of Mines and Geology
deeemke, DMK, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. The leading party of Tamil Nadu
deejeeseee, DGCA, Directorate General of Civil Aviation
deeseepee, DCP, Deputy Commissioner of Police
deeveedee, DVD

deeemaaeesee, DMIC, Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor
deeteesee, DTC, Delhi Transport Corporation

eaaeeseesee, AICC, All-India Congress Committee
ebeeseedee (jocular or satirical), ABCD, American-born confused Desi [Indian]
echaaivee, HIV
efdeeaaee, FDI, Foreign Direct Investment

eme, M.A. Master of Arts
endeee, NDA, National Democratic Alliance (The centre-right coalition)
endeeteevee (Indeeyaa), NDTV (India) New Delhi TV
esaaeetee, SIT, Students Islamic Trust
esspee, SP, Superintendent of Police

echdeesee, HDC, Higher Divisional Clerk
ee yoo, EU, European Union
eefespeee [ = e,ef…], AFSPA, Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
eeteeef, ETF, Exchange-traded Fund
efaaeeaaee. FII, Foreign Institutional Investors
efdeeaaee, FDI, Foreign Direct Investment
efem, FM, Foreign Minister
effaaeeaar, FIR, (Police) First Information Report

elaaeesee, LIC, Life Insurance Corporation
eldeesee, LDC, Lower Divisional Clerk
elosee, LoC, Line of Control (in Kashmir)

em. phil., M.Phil. (Master of Philology)
emeee, MEA, Minister of External Affairs
emele, MLA, Member of the Legislative Assembly

emenes, MNS, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena. Maharashtra Reformation Army. A political party.
empee, MP

enaaeee, NIA, National Investment Agency
enaaeesee, NIC, National Integration Council
enaaraaee, NRI, Non-Resident Indian
enaareejeees, NREGS, National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
endeee, NDA, National Democratic Alliance
enemteebeeese, NMTBSA, Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Association (The world famous lunch delivery “dabbawallas” of Mumbai)
enseeaarbee, NCRB, National Crime Records Bureau
enseeeeartee, NCERT, National Council of Educational Research & Training
enseepee, NCP, Nationalist Congress Party
enseepeearaaee, NCPRI, National Campaign for People’s Right to Information
ensseear, NCR, National Capital Region

esaaeebee, SIB, State Intelligence Bureau
esaaeeemaaaee, SIMI, Student Islamic Movement of India
esaaeetee, 1. SIT, Special Investigation Team
esaaeetee, 2. SIT, Students Islamic Trust
eseebeeaaee, SEBI, Securities Exchange Board of India
eseezed, SEZ, Special Economic Zone
esesaaee, SSI, Small-Scale Industries
espeeo, SPO, Special Police Officer
eteees, ATS, Anti-terrorism Squad
eteesee, ATC, Air Traffickers Association
jedeeyoo, JDU, Janata Dal United, (People’s Association United (Bihar)

jeepeeess, GPS [Sat Nav]
jepeesee, JPC, Joint Parliamentary Committee

obeesee, OBC, Other Backward Classes
oenjeesee, ONGC, Oil and National Gas Corporation

peeaaeeo, PIO, Person of Indian Origin
peeechdee, PhD, Doctor(ate) of Philosophy
peeele, PLA, People’s Liberation Army (China)
peeem, P.M.
peeoke, PoK, Pakistan-occupied Kashmir

seeaaeeaaee, CII, Confederation of Indian Industry
seeaares, 1. CRS, Catholic Relief Society
seeaares, 2. CRS, Congressional Research Service
seeaarpeeef, CRPF, Central Reserve Police Force
seebeeaaee, CBI, Central Bureau of Investigation
seebeesee, CBC [?]
seedee, CD
seeeeoh, CEO
seeem, CM, Chief Minister (State)
seepeeaaee, CPI, Communist Party of India
seepeeem, CPM, or CPI(M) seepeeaaeeem, Communist Party of India (Marxist)
seepeesee, CPC, Communist Party of China

seeseeteevee, CCTV
seeveesee, CVC, Central Vigilance Committee (against corruption & abuse of power)

teedeepee, TDP, Telugu Desham Party (Andra Pradesh)
teeoaaee, TOI (Times of India)
teetee, TT, train ticket inspector
toojee, 2G, The ongoing 2G Spectrum scandal

vaaeetoojee, Y2G [or vaay-] A recent Communications scandal
veeaaeepee, VIP (or ‘weep’)
veep, (or weep), VIP
veesee, VC, Vice Chancellor

yoo es, U.S. (USA)
yoopee, UP (Uttar Pradesh)
yoopeee, UPA, United Progressive Alliance (The ruling coalition)
yoopeees, UPS, [?]
yoopeesee, UPC, [?]

*