Posted tagged ‘Hindi lexicography’

Translation 53. English Loanwords in Hindi. Lexical References

22 February 2016

This useful collection of annotated bibliographical information on Hindi/Urdu is posted here both as a further sample of my book English Loanwords in Hindi and (for those who do not need the book) as a further contribution to my blog series on Translation and Interpreting.

The Bibliography of the multi-faceted book is divided into Lexical References and General Bibliography (4 A-4 pages).

Lexical References (annotated)

Agnihotri, Rama Kant, Hindi. An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London & New York, 2006.

Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by Henk Wagenaar and Sangeeta S. Parikh (New Delhi, Allied Publishers Pvt., 2002 [1996.] [romanised],1167 pages ISBN 81-7764-357-6 Allied Chambers (India) Limited, Transliterated Hindi-English Dictionary, ed. Henk W. Wagenaar, New Delhi, Allied Chambers,1993 [reprint 2008], 1149 pp. ISBN 81-86062-10-6.
[romanised and alphabeticised, with a Glossary of Hindu Mythology (also romanised, pp. 903-1149)]
Bahri, Hardev, Rajpal Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols. Delhi, Rajpal Publishing, ?2006. ISBN 978-81-7028-667-7
This is an excellent (romanised) reference book, possibly the most helpful bilingual romanised dictionary for intermediate and advanced English-speaking learners of Hindi.
It is the only romanised Hindi-English dictionary of those I consulted in which the lexicographer has methodically tried to cover this important aspect of the contemporary Hindi language. (An updated version would be a welcome improvement.)

DK Visual Bilingual Dictionary of Hindi, New York, DK Publishing, 2008. [dk.com]
Based on a common template of English semantic areas and items (and photographs) for all the languages that the series covers, it is an excellent quick-reference source of many examples of technical anglicisms and everyday borrowings from English. One important caveat is that the Introduction informs readers: “Where no suitable Hindi words exist, or are not commonly used, we have retained the English words, but the romanization has been adapted to show how native Hindi speakers pronounce them” (p. 8).
Hindi/Urdu Flagship Program of the University of Texas (Austin) (Director: Professor Rupert Snell) Although the whole website is free for non-commercial use, this is a University level web-based series of teaching and learning aids for students and teachers who are aiming at an advanced professional competency in Hindi or Urdu. Among the large quantity of materials (including videos and Power Point presentations) is the series of podcasts on Spoken Thesaurus (also directed by Rupert Snell)

Kachru, Yamuna, Hindi, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2006.
Kumar, Arvind, Arvind Word Power. English-Hindi. A Dictionary with a Difference, New Delhi, Arvind Linguistics Private Limited, 2015. (1350 pages)
Kumar, Arvind and Kusum, The Penguin English-Hindi / Hindi-English Thesaurus, 3 vols., New Delhi, (Arvind Lingusitics Private Limited), 2007.
McGregor, R.S., Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1993.
McGregor, R.S., Outline of Hindi Grammar, 3rd ed. Revised and Enlarged, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Niladri, Shekhar Dash, Payel Dutta Chowdhury, Abhisek Sarkar (2009). ‘Naturalisation of English Words in Modern Bangla’, Language Forum , Vol. 35, Jul- Dec 2009.
Platts, John T., A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English, London, 1884.
Rahman, Tariq, From Hindi to Urdu: a Social and Political History, Karachi, Oxford University Press, 2011. (Note: Professor Rahman’s website offers many downloads of his writings on this and other related topics.)
Schuermann: Volker Schuermann’s Bollywood Dictionary.
Available online: http://www.wupper.de/sites/unnet/bolly-dictionary.pdf
Shabdkosh Forums: especially for Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi. (Shabdkosh also offers very useful online dictionaries.)
Snell, Rupert, ‘The Hidden Hand: English Lexis, Syntax and Idiom as Determinants of Modern Hindi Usage’, South Asia Research, 1990, 10, 53-68.
(For some academic institutions, available from http://sar.sagepub.com/content/10/1/53.citation)
(To see a read-only copy: Google Search: C.L. Anand, The Constitution of India, choose the Google sample Item, which opens on this article (pp. 74-90). Or, Google Search: David Arnold and Peter Robb, Institutions and Ideologies. A SOAS South Asia Reader. Then open the item from “books.google.com.au”.)
(This is a very important study, worth re-issuing, in which Snell presents a cornucopia of detailed evidence on the massive influence of English on Hindi. The rapid growth of borrowings and the spread of Hinglish over the followng 20 years was to reinforce his thesis, leading to his equally excellent survey (and Trojan Horse warning) in the edited results of the ‘Chutnefying’ Conference: ‘Hindi: Its Threatened Ecology and Natural Genius’, pp. 22-36, in Rita Kothari and Rupert Snell (eds.) 2011. [q.v.]
Snell, Rupert, Teach Yourself Essential Hindi Dictionary, USA, McGraw-Hill, 2011.
Snell, Rupert and Simon Weightman, Teach Yourself Hindi, [2nd. ed.], London, Hodder education, 2003.[There is a different first ed., Hodder and Stoughton, 1989.]
Snell, Rupert with Simon Weightman, Teach Yourself Complete Hindi, USA, McGraw-Hill, 2010.
Steel, Brian: On WordPress and briansteel.net.
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2014/12/23/translation-49-french-loanwords-in-english-pronunciation-guide-for-hindi-speakers-introduction/
https://www.briansteel.net/writings/india/bsteelhindi3_suffixes, pdf/
Suntharesan, V., The Impact of Borrowings from English on Jaffna Tamil. (A Textbook for University Students, Language in India, Vol. 14, 6 June 2014. (A downloadable 125-page book)
Urdulist: Urdu listserv.
*

Translation 43. Learner’s Guide to Hindi Suffixes. Introduction

30 June 2013

This article in the Handy Hindi Hints series is about Hindi suffixes (and other word ending constituents). It is the companion of my recent article on Hindi prefixes (et al), aimed at fellow learners of Hindi as a Second Language. If you missed that one it is still there.

These articles and their copious examples are the fruit of my own ongoing documented struggle with the Hindi language. They have been composed for my own benefit as a shortcut to comprehending the (alien to Anglos) Hindi lexicon. As before, I am happy to share this detailed information with other learners of Hindi as a Second Language. hoping that more knowledgeable readers will assist us all by suggesting corrections and additions to further ease our painful but invigorating linguistic Himalayan climb.

In view of the scope and length of this analysis of suffixes (29 pages, with several hundred examples and translations), those who feel interested enough in the topic already can access the .pdf on my language website (www.briansteel.net). For others, especially those who are not sure if my offering may be of use to them, I present the following basic examples of Hindi word families and a few short extracts from the pdf.

The full version is available here.
*

Hindi Word Families

As a preliminary exercise, let us consider the following Hindi word families, which give an idea of the wide lexical scope to be covered in this compilation. They also show, better than any description, how helpful it is to be able to know the meaning of suffixes and other lexical endings available in the Hindi language.

1. darshan

darshan, m, sight, seeing, view
darshan karnaa, to see, visit

adarshan, invisible
darshaanaa, to exhibit, show
darshak, m, bystander, visitor, spectator,
darshan shaastr, philosophy
darshanik, philosophical
darshee, observer, seer
darshit, shown, displayed
darshneey, noticeable, worth seeing (YK, 125)
doordarshan, m, television
doordarshee, farsighted
doordarsheetaa, farsightedness, sagacity
adoordarshitaa, shortsightednesss
maargdarshan, m, guidance
nidarshak, illustrative, demonstrator
nidarshan, m, example, illustration
observer
paardarshitaa, f, transparency
paridarshan, m, panoramic view
pathpradarshak, m, leader, guide
pradarshan, m, show, demonstration, performance
pratham pradarshan, premiere
pratyaksh darshan, m, firsthand view
satdarshee, m, seer of truth
sudarshan, good-looking, elegant
virodh pradarshan karnevaale, protesters, demonstrators

2. sukh

sukh, m. happiness, pleasure
sukhee, happy
sukhkaarak, pleasant
sukhjanak, giving pleasure
sukhdaataa, sukhdaayinee (f), giving pleasure
sukhpoorvak, happily
sukhvaad, hedonism
sukhvaadee, hedoinist

3. vichaar

vichaar, m, thought, idea
vichaaraatmak, thoughtful
vichaarak, thinker
vichaararth, discussion
vichaardhaaraa, f, ideology
vichaardhaaraaparak, ideological
vichaarheen, thoughtless, unthinking
vichaarneey, worth considering
vichaarpoorn, thoughtful
vichaarpoorvak, thoughtfullY
vichaarsheel, thoughtful
vichaarsheeltaa, f, thoughtfulness
vichaarvaad, idealism
vichaarvaadee, m/f, idealist
vichaarvaan, thoughtful

vaichaarik, thoughtful, ideological
*

Word formation processes: 4 examples from the full study.

From Part 1 (Functional word endings)

-ee
1.
-ee, f, abstract nouns (from nouns or adjectives)
choree, f, theft (chor, m, thief)
daaktaree, f, medical profession
dostee, f, friendship
mazdooree, f, labourer’s wage

With adjectives
beemaaree, f, illness
bahadooree, f, bravery (bahaadur, brave)
giraftaaree, f, arrest
eemandaaree, f, honesty
hoshiyaaree, f, intelligence

2. Invariable adjectives and nouns

A. Origin or affiliation (nouns and adjectives)

amreekee, American
banarsee, from Benares (Varanasi)
bhaaratvaasee, Indian citizen
cheenee, Chinese
gujraatee, Gujarati
islaamee, Islamic <islaam?
madraasee, from Madras
paNjaabee, Punjabi
roosee, Russian
videshee, foreign, foreigner

B. agents and “doers”, -er, -ist, etc.

adhikaaree, m, official, officer
adhohastaaksharee, the undersigned
shaastree, scientist
telee, oil worker

C. Other invariable nouns and adjectives

asarkaaree, non-governmental
(Note also: asarkaaree [asar+kaaree], effective)
bhrashtaachaaree, m, corrupt person
dhanee, wealthy (person)
hridayasparshee, heart-touching
krodhee, angry
nivaasee, inhabitant(s)
phaujee, military
sukhee, happy
zarooree, urgent, important, necessary

*

From Part 1

-pan
Abstract nouns, masculine : -ness, -hood, etc.

akelaapan, m, feeling of loneliness
bachpan, childhood,
gaNjapan, baldness
kachchaapan, rawness
kalaapan, blackness
khoklaapan, m, hollowness
khulepan, openness (khulaa, open, clear)
motapan, fatness
nayaapan, novelty
paagalpan, madness
pakkaapan, thoroughness
peelaapan, yellowness
samajhpan, understanding
uneeNdaapan, m, drowsiness
vidhvaapan, m, widowhood
vigyaapan, advertisement

From Part 2 (Labels)

-kaar

Very productive
(For -kaaree as an adjectival suffix, see Part 4.)

chaayaakaar, m, photographer
chitrakaar, painter, artist, designer
geetkaar, lyricist
kahaanikaar, m, story writer
kalaakaar, m, artist
koshkaar, lexicographer
lekhakkaar, accountant (lekhak, writer/author)
moortikaar, sculptor
naatakkaar, m, dramatist, playwright
patrkaar, journalist <
rachnaakaar, m. author, creator
saNgeetkaar, musician
vaastukaar, m, architect
vivrankaar, m, commentator
yaNtrakaar, mechanic

Note
The noun kartaa (doer, maker) is also used as a suffix.
kaaryakartaa, m, worker, activist
niyaNtrankartaa, m, controller
peshkartaa, m, presenter
saakshaatkaarkartaa, m, interviewer

From Part 3 Descriptive elements (Things get even more interesting from here on.)
*
(The first of the 4 main descriptive suffixes: -ik, -ak, -eey, -it)

(consonant +) -ik

The number ONE descriptive suffix is -ik, often equivalent to the English suffix -al
or -ic (or -ical) which, coincidentally, it closely resembles homophonically. It is usually attached directly to a noun, e.g. samaaj, society + ik > samaajik, social.

aadhaarik, basic
aadhunik, modern (
aanubhavik, empirical
aanukramik, sequential
aanuvarnik, alphabetical ?
aatmik, spiritual
adhyaatmik, spiritual
aaraMbhik, initial, early, preliminary
aarthik, economic, financial
aastik, believer
akaalik, inopportune
dharmik, religious
maasik, monthly
paarasparik, reciprocal
raajneetik, political
samaarik, strategic
samaajik, social
shareerik, bodily, physical (body)
upyogik, useful (pr upi-)
varshik, annual
vyapaarik, business atr., trade atr.

Notes
1. Standard vowel changes occur:
i > ai; e > ai; u > au ; o and oo > au

alaukik, unwordly, non-secular
amaulik, unoriginal
anaitik, unethical
itihaas (history) > itihaisik
pauranik, legendary
vaigyaanik, scientist
vaikalpik, optional
vaicharik, thoughtful, idealogical
vaitanik, salaried. paid
vaideshik, foreign
*

From Part 4

-poorvak
From poorv, full. It is used to form adverbs.

aadaarpoorvak, respectfully
adhikaarpoorvak, authoritative, with authority
dhyaanpoorvak, carefully
kushalpoorvak, safely
nishchaypoorvak, firmly
prempoorvak, lovingly, agreeably
shaNtipoorvak, peacefully
sukhpoorvak, happily
suvidhaapoorvak, conventionally
veerpoorvak, valiantly, heroically
vichaarpoorvak, thoughtfully
yuktipoorvak, skilfully
vishvaaspoorvak, confidently
*

From Part 5

-yog

Highly productive of masculine nouns and, with common suffixes like -ik, adjectives also.

aayog, m, a commission (body)
abhiyog, accusation
asahyog, m, non-cooperation
durupyog, improper use, wasteful
manoyog, m, concentration, single-mindedness
niyog, m, employment
prayog, m, use; experiment
pratiyogaa/ee, competitor
pratiyogitaa, competition
sahyog, cooperation
sahyogtaa, support
sahyogee, assistant, colleague, ally
saMyogik, accidental, fortuitous
suyog, m, happy chance, serendipity
udyog, industry [scr.]
udyogpati, industrialist
upyog, use (pr. upiyog)
upyogee, useful, helpful
upyogitaa, f, usefulness, suitability
viyog, separation

Note
-yogya, -able <yogya, able, worthy
niryogya, disabled
*
Well, there you are! The above and another 20+ pages are available here. As a potential shortcut to achieving wider comprehension of the ‘alien’ Hindi lexicon, the broad system of suffixes and suggested translations offered in this compendium is surely worth attention.

*
Reference List

Agnihotri, Rama Kant, Hindi. An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London & New York, 2006. (pp. 57-75 provide an original analysis of suffixes.)
Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by Henk Wagenaar and Sangeeta S. Parikh, New Delhi, Allied Publishers, 1996.

Bahri, Hardev, Rajpal Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols., Delhi, Rajpal Publishing, 2011.
(This is possibly the most helpful bilingual romanised dictionary for intermediate and advanced English-speaking learners of Hindi.)

Kachru, Yamuna, Hindi, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2006. (pp. 114-127 are crammed with concise information which I have quoted directly for a small number of those suffixes which I have not met.

Koul, Omkar N., Modern Hindi Grammar, Springfield, VA, Dunwoody Press, 2008, pp. 69-72).
This work is available for download from
Professor Koul at iils.delhi@gmail.com)

McGregor, R. S., Outline of Hindi Grammar, OUP, 3rd. ed., 1995. His treatment of suffixes (pp 211-214) is a very useful starting point on this topic and the author’s treatment of the -saa particle (pp. 161-163) is particularly helpful.
*

India and Hindi Portfolio, 2009-2013. Brian Steel

22 May 2013

Updated February  2016

In 2009, Australia was not aware that it needed my assistance. Neither was I. In 2012, however, the government discovered that it has almost half a million Indian citizens and visiting students and, logically if belatedly, it has been trying to encourage its educational establishments and suitable citizens to take up the study of Hindi in order to contribute to the faster growth of existing Indo-Australian links and trade.

Since some of my private Internet contributions relate to both the tenacious study of Hindi by one Australian (myself) and the recent portrayal of India in foreign media and books, I shyly reveal this brief portfolio of offerings to date.

Now, what about a retrospective study grant?
*

INDIA

2010 October
Background Reading on Contemporary India
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2010/10/07/background-reading-on-contemporary-india/

2010 November
Contemporary India. 1. Basic Sources of Information
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2010/11/28/contemporary-india-1-basic-sources-of-information/
and
Contemporary India. 1a. Basic Sources of Information. Catherine Taylor’s Possible Sequel to Sarah Macdonald’s Interpretation of India
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/contemporary-india-1a-basic-sources-of-information-catherine-taylor%E2%80%99s-possible-sequel-to-sarah-macdonald%E2%80%99s-interpretation-of-india/

2011 January
Contemporary India. Basic Sources of Information. 2. New Books by Patrick French and Anand Giridharadas
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2011/01/31/contemporary-india-basic-sources-of-information-2-new-books-by-patrick-french-and-anand-giridharadas/

2011 August
An Unofficial Analysis of India’s Current Problems
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2011/08/04/an-unofficial-analysis-of-india%E2%80%99s-current-problems/

2011 December
The Australian’s interest in Contemporary India. Part 1
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2011/12/12/the-australians-interest-in-contemporary-india-part-1/

2012 February
The Australian’s Interest in Contemporary India. Part 2
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/the-australians-interest-in-contemporary-india-part-2/

2013 March
The Indian Investigative Magazine Tehelka and its Hindi Version

https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2013/03/31/the-indian-investigative-magazine-tehelka-and-its-hindi-version/
*

HINDI

2010 August
Translation 22. Cultural Content of Given Names. The Case of Hindi
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/translation-22-cultural-content-of-given-names-the-case-of-hindi/

2011 January
Translation 26. An Online Hindi & Urdu Glossary of Bollywood films by Volker Schuermann
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2011/01/14/translation-26-an-online-hindi-urdu-glossary-of-bollywood-films-by-volker-schuermann/

2011 August
Basic Hindi Vocabulary for English-Speaking Learners
http://www.briansteel.net/writings/basichindi1.htm

and a shorter version, August 2011:
Basic Hindi Vocabulary for Lucky English-speaking Learners
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2011/08/16/basic-hindi-vocabulary-for-lucky-english-speaking-learners/

2011 December
Hindi Acronyms are based on English phonetics
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2011/12/04/hindi-acronyms-are-based-on-english-phonetics/

2012 June
Translation 36. Free Internet Translation Software: The Contest between Google Translate and Microsoft’s BING Translator. Russian and Hindi
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2012/06/13/translation-36-free-internet-translation-software-the-contest-between-google-translate-and-microsofts-bing-translator-russian-and-hindi/

2012 September
Translation 37. Arvind and Kusum Kumar’s magnum opus: the Bilingual Hindi and English Thesaurus
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2012/09/22/translation-37-arvind-and-kusum-kumars-magnum-opus-the-bilingual-hindi-and-english-thesaurus/

2012 October
Translation 38. Hindi Learning Shortcuts. Introduction to a New Series
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2012/10/26/translation-38-hindi-learning-shortcuts-introduction-to-a-new-series/

and
http://www.briansteel.net/writings/india/index.html
“This new web page reflects the course of my broadening interest in contemporary India as a whole and in one of its major languages, Hindi.”
In October 2012 I have finally felt able to begin to post a series of articles on the Hindi language based on my (determined) 4-year struggle to add Hindi to the list of languages that I can comprehend. I am now comprehending, but still quite slowly!
It is my hope that the series, Hindi Learning Hints, may be of some use to fellow foreign learners of Hindi, in particular to those for whom English is a native or major language. I hope that those who are further advanced in this process than myself, as well as any Hindi-speakers who may chance to see these articles, may be able to favour me with their corrections of my misunderstandings and errors, preferably at ompukalani@hotmail.com ”

2012 November
Hindi Learning Hints. 1. The Versatile vaalaa Suffix (Introduction)
http://www.briansteel.net/writings/india/hindi1_vaalaa.htm

and
Translation 39. A Short Reference List for Hindi learners & Notes on the suffix vaalaa / ‘wallah’
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2012/11/04/translation-39-a-short-reference-list-for-hindi-learners-notes-on-the-suffix-vaalaa-wallah/

2013 January
Translation 40. Hindi-English-Hinglish, an Indian ménage à trois
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2013/01/23/translation-40-hindi-english-hinglish-an-indian-menage-a-trois/
and
Translation 41. Hindi Learning Hints 4. English Loanwords in Contemporary Hindi
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2013/01/29/translation-41-hindi-learning-hints-4-english-loanwords-in-contemporary-hindi/

2013 May
Handy Hindi Hints. 2. Selected Prefixes and Other Word Formation Elements
[First Draft]
http://www.briansteel.net/writings/india/hindi2_prefixes.pdf

Translation 42. Learner’s Guide to Hindi Prefixes and word formation. Introduction
https://briansteel.wordpress.com/2013/05/20/translation-42-learners-guide-to-hindi-prefixes-and-word-formation-introduction/

* Update:
Handy Hindi Hints. 3. Hindi Suffixes and Word Formation [June 2013]
http://briansteel.net/writings/india/bsteelhindi3_suffixes.pdf
Hindi Learning Hints 4. 2,500 English Loanwords in Contemporary Hindi [Unpublished Draft]

Hindi Learning Hints 5. Postpositions
(108+ Hindi Postpositions. A Comprehensive List for HSL Students. Draft.’)
http://briansteel.net/writings/india/bsteelhindi5_postpositions.pdf
[December 2013]

Update. February 2016:

30 April 2014  Linguistic Glimpses of the 2014 Indian General Elections Through English Loanwords in Hindi

23 December 2014 Translation 49. French Loanwords in English. Pronunciation Guide for Hindi Speakers. Introduction

27 March 2015  Translation 51. Arvind Kumar’s Word Power in English

21 February 2016. Book: English Loanwords, Abbreviations, and Acronyms in Hindi. A Romanised Guide to Hindi Media Usage.

and

Translation 53. English Loanwords in Hindi. Lexical References.

 

 

 

Translation 42. Learner’s Guide to Hindi Prefixes and word formation. Introduction

20 May 2013

The full 20-page study, with 800 examples (and a fuller Introduction), is available here.
*

Hindi word formation is a wide and complex lexical and morphological field. The following two studies will cover some aspects of word formation of special interest and potential benefit for learners of Hindi as a Second Language. They are offered in Draft form, in the hope that those more knowledgeable will send me their corrections and suggestions in order to make this amateur compilation more accurate and useful for myself and for fellow intermediate students of Hindi.
*
After four years of study, I remain deeply engaged in a time- and energy-sapping struggle with this fascinating but quite difficult foreign language. Some of my previous language-learning strategies have proved very useful in keeping me on a slowly productive learning curve but the extreme foreignness of Hindi script, vocabulary, morphology and grammar has presented a formidable linguistic Himalayan range to scale and here I am, still exploring the foothills. All these Handy Hindi Hints articles are therefore basically for my own benefit, but the considerable work involved makes the results potentially worth sharing with others on the same long trek.

One of the special difficulties for speakers of English (and many other languages) is that Hindi vocabulary does not offer any of the usual convenient and comforting ‘toeholds’ or mnemonics which are available to us in our attempts to speed up comprehension of the foreign languages we are most likely to learn: the European Romance Languages. A large quantity of words passed down from Latin are still easily and instantly comprehensible to us in these languages.

This applies most particularly to those words and word families containing familiar prefixes and suffixes, like con-, dis-, mis-, pre-, pro-, un- etc.
and
-ate, -ary, -ful, -ive, -ous, -sion, -tion, etc.

As a simple example of the practical value of this shared knowledge, take the word constitution with its prefix, con- and suffix, -tion. In many countries of Europe, and beyond, the corresponding term is instantly identified (especially in its written form):
constitution (French), constitución, costituzione, constituição, constitució and constituție, etc. Equal similarities apply to most other words containing the affixes con- and -tion and, indeed, to many other cognate Latin (and other) prefixes and suffixes.

This is a valuable learning advantage that the second language learner probably takes for granted while wrestling with the many very real problems of the foreign language.

In learning Hindi, however, NONE of these basic similarities exist and as a consequence, most native Hindi words have to be individually committed to memory. This is such a huge task that the only way to make satisfactory progress is to find shortcuts.

One obvious strategy is to systematise one’s lexical acquisitions by studying the morphology of Hindi word formation in order to build up an appreciation of Hindi word families by memorising common prefixes, suffixes and other frequently used word-compounding elements like those I shall be introducing in this academically unorthodox but (I hope) learner-friendly study.

This article and the following one will deal with detailed analyses of these two types of word formation in Hindi.

1. Words which consist of the addition of a particle (prefix) or an existing word to an existing word or ‘word base’ to form semantically related words.

2. Other selected word formations which consist of a suffix, or compounding word or element appended to an existing word. These words and compounds will be the subject of my next article.

Acknowledgements
(See Reference List for publishing details.)

In my study of the lexicon of written and spoken media Hindi, I have been especially aided by the authors of two excellent bilingual romanised dictionaries:

Hardev Bahri, Rajjpal Advanced Learner’s Hindi-English Dictionary, 2 vols., Delhi, Rajpal Publishing, 2011. (In Vol. 2, there are Appendices on Prefixes (upsarg) on pp. 1767-1771 and on Suffixes (pratyay) on pp. 1772-1778.)

Allied’s Hindi-English Dictionary, edited by Henk Wagenaar and Sangeeta S. Parikh
(New Delhi, Allied Publishers, 1996.)

For some months I have also had the luxury of referring to the bilingual Hindi and English Thesaurus by Arvind Kumar (both the online version and the printed one) and in the last three months, I have also benefitted from the recent research and romanised renderings offered in Dr. Badrinaath Kapoor’s Advanced Hindi-English Dictionary (New Delhi, Prabhaat Prakaashan, 2007).

Of the Hindi grammars I have consulted, the most thorough treatment of prefixes and suffixes is in Professor Yamuna Kachru’s magisterial study, Hindi (John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2006, Chapter 8, ‘Word Formation’, pp 111-129. This very densely packed chapter also deals with other characteristic forms of lexical compounding in Hindi which learners need to know.

Also invaluable in my initial Hindi studies and as a constant reference point was R.S.McGregor’s enduring classic analysis, Outline of Hindi Grammar, OUP, 3rd. ed., 1995. His treatment of word formation affixes (pp 207-215) is a useful starting point on these topics.

I am also grateful to my tutor, Indramohan Singh, for timely answers to a series of last-minute queries.

*

Selected Hindi Prefixes and Other Initial Compounding Elements

Classification
(Definitions in inverted commas are from Yamuna Kachru.)

1. Negatives, antonyms, opposition

a-, “not, without”
an-, ana-, “not, without”
ap-
bad-
be-
duh- : + dur-, dush- “bad, difficult”
gair
ku-, “bad, deficient”
laa-
naa-
ni-
nih-, nir-, nis-, nish-, “without”
par- other
prati- 1. against
vi-. 1. “different, opposite”
[vi-2, : See’Section 5.]

2. Positive

su-, good
sat-, sad-, true
dharm (COMPOUND)

3. Number, quantity, size

alp (COMPOUND), small
adh-, and ardh-, half
bahu- ( C ) multi-, poly-
ek-, one
du- (do-), two-
dvi-, two, twin
tri-, three-

4. References to place, position, order and time (similar to some English prepositions and prefixes)

(The brief introductory glosses in inverted commas given below are from Professor Yamuna Kachru, pp. 112- 113 and 124-125.)

aa-, “to, toward, up to”
abhi-, “toward, intensity”
adhi-, “additional, above”
[adho-, lower]
aNtah, aNtar, “inter”
anu-, “after”
ap-. “away, off, down”
ati-, “excessive”
av-, “away, diminution”
door-, far, distant
[nav-, new(ly), neo-]

pari-, “around, whole”
[poorv-, (time): former, previous
(place): east(ern)]
pra-, 1. before, pre-, forward
[pra-, 2. excellent. supreme. See Section 5.]
[punah and punar-, [re-]

up(a)-, up(i)-, “subordinate”
ut, ud-, un-, “upward”
[sah-, with, co-]
[baa-, containing, with]
saN-, with, together
[san- / sam-, same, equal]

5. Intensity or degree

[poorn-, full(y)]
pra- 2. “forward, excess”
[vi- 2. completely]
[saarv-, sarv-, all-]

6. Similar COMPOUND elements indicating scale, rank and intensity

madhya-, ( C), medium, middle-
madhyam, ( C), medium
mukhya- . chief, main
raaj-, royal
vishva ( C), universal, world

7. Personal

aatma- ( C), self-
sva(a)-, self, own
praan- ( C), life-
yog ( C), combination, joining, yoga
mano-, mental, psycho-

8. Selected productive compounding words

8.1 Elements

agni ( C), fire
bhoo, ( C) and bhoomi ( C), land, soil
jal ( C ), water
vaayu ( C) air

8.2 People

jan ( C ), people
lok ( C), people
jeev ( C), & jeevan ( C)
jaat ( C) & jaati ( C)
arth, ( C), money; meaning
raashtra, (C ) nation

8.3 Action Compounds

kaarya ( C), work, action
kriyaa ( C) action
krit-, done

*
All these are examined and illustrated in detail as a vocabulary-building exercise on my Hindi web page. Approximately 800 examples and translations are given as well as glosses for the ‘base word’ to which the prefix or other element is added.

Translation 26. An Online Hindi & Urdu Glossary of Bollywood films by Volker Schuermann

14 January 2011

Volker Schuermann’s Bollywood Dictionary is something of a hidden Internet gem for foreign students of Hindi and Urdu and aficionados of the Indian cinema. It is to be found here.

This meticulously transliterated glossary of over 3500 terms uses an eclectic mixture of lexicographical techniques to present the selected Hindi and Urdu terms in a (convenient) romanised form and in an alphabetical order which is much more user-friendly than conventional Hindi-English or Urdu-English dictionaries which offer romanised glosses of the Hindi or Urdu terms.

This version of Schuermann’s glossary was compiled and printed in Germany in April 2001 and converted into this PDF format in March 2003. The presentation is brief and modest:

Volker Schuermann’s Bollywood Dictionary

“It is definitly not a Hindi dictionary! One might call it a Hindustani dictionary, though. The vocabulary consists of words from quite a few different origins: Hindi, Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Sanskrit, Greek and English. All those languages have been mixed together to form a new language – Hindustani. A language the majority of Indian cinema-goers can understand.

“In order to help Bollywood fans living in the western parts of the world to understand the dialogues in the movies as well, I have created this dictionary. The sort-order of the vocabulary is based on latin script to make it easier to look up words. Also, the Hindustani words are not printed in Devanagari or even Urdu script but in latin letters. ITRANS is used as a transliteration scheme except for a few occasions where Urdu/Arabic words needed special transliteration treatment.”

Schuermann expresses his acknowledgement of work of the ITRANS team led by Avinash Chopde and concludes:.

“Enjoy your Bollywood movies ….
… and from now on, enjoy understanding the dialogues as well.”
Volker Schuermann, April 2001… [An email address is given there.]

Fans and students are highly indebted to Dr Schuermann (or perhaps Schürmann) for this well-researched and presented Glossary.

The following sample gives an idea of the scope and the amount of research undertaken. (The symbols are explained on pages 2 and 3.)
*

“baad: later
baad me.n: afterwards, later
baadah (n.m.) [P]: wine, spirits
baadal (n.m.) [H]: cloud(s)
baadiyah (n.m.) [A]: wilderness, desert
baadiyah (n.m.) [P]: goblet, cup
baadshaah (n.m.) [P]: emperor, king
baagh (n.m.) [P]: garden, orchard, grove
baagh (m.): tiger
baahar: outside
baaiis: twenty-two, 22
baal (m.): child
baal (m.): hair
baal baa.Nka na honaa: to escape unhurt
baal-bachche (m.): children, family
baalaTii (f.): bucket
baalak (m.): child
baalam (n.m.) [S]: a lover, sweet-heart, husband
baam (n.m.) [P]: upper storey, terrace, balcony
baan (suff.) [P]: signifying keeper or guardian
baanave: ninety-two, 92
baano (n.f.) [P]: lady, gentlewoman
baap (m.): father
baaqee (adj.) [A]: remaining, lasting
baaqee (n.f.) [A]: residue, remainder, arrears
baaqii (f.): remaining, left over, remainder
baar (n.m.) [H]: time, turn, chance, opportunity, delay, obstacle
baar (n.m.) [P]: burden, load, permission, grief, court
baarah (n.m.) [P]: time, turn, about, in regard of
baarah: twelve, 12
baareek (adj.) [P]: fine, slender, delicate, difficult, subtle
baarish (n.m.) [P]: rain
baarish honaa: to rain, rain to fall
baasaTh: sixty-two, 62
baat (n.f.) [H]: word, saying, speech, tale, news, question, business, proposal,
point, gossip, substance
baat: thing, matter, idea, thing said
baat karanaa se: to talk, converse
baate.n honaa: a conversation to take place
baavan: fifty-two, 52
baayaa.N: left (direction)
baaz (adv.) [P]: again, back, refusing
baaz (n.m.) [P]: falcon
baaz (suff.) [P]: denotes doer, agent
baazaar (n.m.) [P]: market, bazaar
baazaar garam honaa: to be doing brisk business
baazaaree (adj.) [P]: common, low, vulgar, relating to the market
baazii (n.f.) [P]: sport, game, wager, turn (in a game)
baazichah (n.m.) [P]: toy, fun, sport
baazoo (n.m.) [P]: arm, fold of a door, flank of an army
bachaanaa: to save, rescue
bachanaa: to be saved, escape, survive
bachapan (m.): childhood
bachchaa (m.): child
bad (adj.) [P]: bad, wicked, evil
bad akhtar (adj.): unfortunate
bad anjaam (adj.): having a bad end
bad chalan (adj.): of bad conduct, ill-mannered, immoral
bad du’aa (n.f.): curse, malediction
bad khvaab (n.m., f.): nightmare
bad m’aash (adj.): roguish
bad naam (adj.): disreputable, notorious, ignominous
bad naseeb (adj.): unfortunate, unlucky”
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And there are 60 more pages!