Translation 16. Some English-Spanish Translation Pitfalls. Part 1.

Most words in formal and scientific English and Spanish are of Latin or Greek origin. Many therefore have predictable cognate forms in Spanish or English, which eases the process of learning one of these languages by speakers of the other. However, there are a significant number of cases where the corresponding English/Spanish forms show significant differences, often in their prefixes or suffixes. These irregular correspondences or “near-cognates” need to be learned separately, especially by translators and interpreters. In this blog and the following one, a selection of such potential translation pitfalls is presented.

A-M
English > Spanish

abnormal, anormal
abortion, aborto
absorptiometer, absorciómetro
absorption, absorción
acclimatization, aclimatación
acclimatize, aclimatar(se)
accomplice, cómplice
acidic, ácido
adrenal, suprarrenal
adsorption, adsorción
aeolian, eólico
agricultural expert, agrónomo, a
agriculturalist, agricultor, a
agriculturist, agricultor, a
agronomist, agrónomo, a
allele, alelo
allergenic, alergógeno
allogenic, alógeno
amebic (North American English), amebiano
ammonium, monio
amoeba, ameba
amoebic, amebiano
amoebic dysentery, disentería amebiana
amphetamine, anfetamina
amphibian, adj & n., anfibio
antacid, antiácido
anthropogenic factor, factor antropógeno
anticarcinogenic, anticancerígeno
anticline, anticlinal; anticlino
anti depressant, adj & n., antidepresivo
anti fungal, antifúngico
antihistamine, adj & n., antihistamínico
antimalarial, antimalárico
antiviral, antivírico
aquaponics, acuicultura
architectectural, arquitectónico
argillaceous, arcilloso
asepsis, asepsia
astatine, astato
astronomer, astrónomo
astrophysicist, astrofísico
astrophysics, astrofísica
atavistic, atávico
automation, automatización
autonomic, vegetativo
bacteria, bacterias
bacterial, bacteriano
barbiturate, sustancia barbitúrica
beneficial, beneficioso
benthic zone, zona bentónica
benzene, benceno
benzine, bencina
bilharzia, bilharziasis
bioassay, bioensayo
biocatalyst, biocatalizador
biocoenosis, biocenosis
biomimesis, biomimetismo
biphenyl, difenilo
botanist, botánico
bromine, bromo
bromide, bromuro
capable, capaz
capillary, capilar
carbolic acid, ácido fénico
carbon dioxide, gas carbónico; anhídrido carbónico
carcinogenic, cancerígeno
caustic soda, sosa cáustica
centrifugal, centrífugo
centripetal, centrípeto
cerebral palsy, parálisis cerebral
cetacean, cetáceo
chiropractic, quiropraxia
chloride, cloruro
chlorinate, clorar; tratar con cloro
chlorinating, cloración (química)
chlorination, cloración
chlorinator, clorador
chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], clorofluorocarburos
choline, colina
chromosomal, cromosómico
chrysalis, crisálida
cinnabar, cinabrio
coercive, coercitivo
columbium, n., niobio; adj., nióbico
compaction (of soil), compactación (del suelo)
compulsory, obligatorio
cumulative dose, dosis acumulada/aditiva
concrete, hormigón
consistent, consecuente
consortium, consorcio
consumerism, consumismo
controversial, polémico; controvertido
correlate, correlacionar
counter intelligence, contraespionaje
credible, creíble
critical, crítico; crucial
criticism, crítica
cryogenic, criógeno; criogénico
cryogenics; criogenia
cryophilic, criófilo
cumulative dose, dosis acumulada/aditiva
cyanide, cianuro
cynicism, cinismo
data, datos
DC [=direct current], corriente continua
de [prefijo]: des (also: de-)
de jure, de derecho
deciduous, caducifolio
defective, defectuoso
deformed, deforme
dehydrate, deshidratar
dehydrated, deshidratado
demethylation, desmetilación
demonstration, manifestación; prueba
denature, desnaturalizar
denatured, desnaturalizado
denaturing, desnaturante
denitration, desnitrificación
depopulation, despoblamiento
desalination, desalinización
desalt, desalar; desalinizar
desalting, desalación
desecrate, profanar
desecration, profanación
desert, n., desierto; adj., desértico
desertification, desertificación; desertización
desperate, desesperado
destabilize, desestabilizar
deterioration, deterioro
detoxification, desintoxicación
detoxify, desintoxicar
diagnose, diagnosticar
diagnosis, diagnóstico; (also: diagnosis)
dietary, dietético
digitization. digitalización
digitize, digitalizar
dioxide, bióxido
disarmament, desarme
discoloration, decoloración
disqualification, inhabilitación
disqualify, inhabilitar
dissatisfaction, insatisfacción
dissatisfied, insatisfecho
dubious, dudoso; sospechoso
ecoguer(r)illa, ecoguerrillero
elementary, elemental; rudimentario
embryonic, embrionario
empiricism, empirismo
emulsified, emulsionado
emulsifier, emulsionante; emulgente
emulsify, emulsionar
energetic, enérgico; vigoroso
energy, n., energía; adj., energético
enthusiast, aficionado
eolian, eólico
epidemic, epidemia
equitable, equitativo
eradicate, erradicar
eradication, erradicación
erodibility, erosionabilidad
ethicist, ético
eugenic, adj., eugenista
eugenicist, n., eugenista
eugenics, eugenesia
eutrophicate, eutrofizar
eutrophication, eutrofización
evolutionary, evolutivo
evolve, evolucionar
exhaustible, agotable
exhibition, exposición
explain, explicar
explanation, explicación
expropriate, expropiar
expropriation, expropiación
extermination, exterminio
extraterrestrial, adj. & n., extraterrestre
feldspar, feldespato
feral, silvestre
fissile, fisible; (also: fisil)
fluoridate, fluorizar
fluoridation, fluorización
fluoride, fluoruro
fluorine, flúor
fluorocarbon, fluorocarburo; adj., fluorocarbúrico
fragrance, fragancia
fragrant, fragante
gallium arsenate, arseniato de galio
gargantuan, gigantesco; colosal
geneticist, genético
geodetic, geodésico
geosyncline, geosinclinal
geothermal (energy), geotérmico
geriatrician, geriatra
germicidal, adj., bactericida
germicide, bactericida
glacier, glaciar
global, mundial
global warming, recalentamiento mundial
gluc(o), [prefix]: glic(o) ; gluc(o) (‘dulce’)
glycogen, glucógeno; (also: glicógeno)
guerilla/guerrilla (as adj.), guerrillero
herbal, herbario
horticultural, hortícola
hybridisation, hibridación
hydrocarbons, hidrocarburos
hydrochloric acid, ácido clorhidrico
hydrocyanic, cianhídrico
hydrophyte, planta hidrófila
immune (system), as adj., (sistema) inmunitario
immunization, inmunización
immunodepressant, adj y n., inmunodepresor
incapacitate, imposibilitar
inconsistent, inconsecuente; incongruente
indefensible, indefendible
indemnify, indemnizar
individual, adj., individual; n., individuo
infertile, estéril; infecundo
inhabit, habitar
inhabitant, habitante
inherit, heredar
inhibit, cohibir; prohibir
inhibited, cohibido
insensitive, insensible
insulate, aislar
insulation, aislamiento; material aislante
inventory, inventario
invest, invertir
investment, inversión
investor, inversionista
iodide, yoduro
iodine, yodo
irrelevant, no pertinente
irreplaceable, insustituible
irresponsible, irresponsable
irreversible, irrevocable; irreversible
irrigate, (Agriculture) regar; (Med.) irrigar
irrigated land, (tierra de) regadío
irrigation, (Agriculture) riego; (Med.) irrigación
irreplaceable, insustituible
isoclinal, isoclina
isomeric, isómero
isomerism, isomeria
isotherm, isoterma
isothermal, isotermo
ketone, cetona
kinematics, cinemática
kinetic, cinético
kinetics, cinética
lactation, lactancia
laxative, laxante
legume, leguminosa
linear, lineal
lipotropic factor, factor lipotropo
liquefied (gas), licuado
liquefy, licuar
long, largo
malignant, maligno
microbial, microbiano
malignant, maligno
malnutrition, desnutrición
mammal, mamífero
matrix, matriz
microbial, microbiano
monoculture, monocultivo
monounsaturated, monoinsaturado
moratorium, moratoria
multicellular, pluricelular
multifaceted, multifacético
multilingual, plurilingüe
mutate, mudar
mutual, mutuo
*
(To be continued)

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