The European Union’s verdict on the Franco Régime in Spain (1939-1975)
An enlightening insight into the workings of the complex European Union government is on display in the following record of recent debates stemming from simmering European controversies over the distant but not forgotten Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and the ensuing Franco Dictatorship (1939-1975).
1. On 11 February 2004, in the Parliamentary Assembly of the EU, a Motion for a Resolution on the Need for International Condemnation of the Franco Regime was signed by 39 (mainly Socialist) Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). As a result, a European Union Political Affairs Committee was set up, with the prominent Maltese Socialist politician Leo Brincat as Rapporteur, to consider this question.
2. Of the 83 EU members appointed to the Committee, 36 were present at the final meeting on 4 October 2005 to adopt (unanimously) the Draft Recommendations (in English and French, but not Spanish) to the Parliamentary Assembly. (http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc05/EDOC10737.htm)
The Brincat Report consists of eight strongly worded recommendations and 100 paragraphs of background information.
3. In its turn, on 17 March 2006, the Standing Committee of the EU Parliamentary Assembly / Assemblée Parlementaire approved the Draft Recommendations for submission to the Council of Ministers. (http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/AdoptedText/ta06/EREC1736.htm)
Recommendation 1736 (2006)
Need for international condemnation of the Franco regime
1. The Parliamentary Assembly strongly condemns the extensive and wide-ranging human rights abuses committed by the Franco regime in Spain from 1939 to 1975.
2. Public debate in Spain on the question of drawing up a full account of the Franco dictatorship’s crimes was launched in the 1980s and continues to this very day. The debate has further intensified under the present administration.
3. Initiatives started in the early 1980s, aimed at removing symbols of the dictatorship, such as statues, from public places and at renaming streets and schools named after Franco and his generals, have been quite successful.
4. The Assembly hopes that the present debate in Spain will result in a thorough and in-depth examination and assessment of the Franco regime’s actions and crimes. In particular, the Assembly looks forward to the results of the work of the Interministerial Commission for the Examination of the Situation of Victims of Civil War and the Franco Regime, established in October 2004.
5. At the same time, the Assembly underlines that the violation of human rights is not an internal matter of a single country and therefore the international community is as much concerned as the Spaniards themselves.
6. The awareness of history is one of the preconditions for avoiding similar mistakes in the future. Furthermore, moral assessment and condemnation of committed crimes plays an important role in the education of young generations.
7. The Assembly stresses that the Council of Europe is well placed for a serious discussion on the subject. In accordance with its fundamental principles it should condemn the crimes and violation of human rights under the Franco regime at international level.
8. The Assembly therefore calls on the Committee of Ministers to:
8.1. adopt an official declaration for the international condemnation of the Franco regime and to mark 18 July 2006 as the official day of condemnation of the Franco regime as it marks the 70th anniversary of the beginning of the Spanish civil war and Franco’s overthrow of the government;
8.2. urge the Spanish Government to:
8.2.1. set up a national committee to investigate violations of human rights committed under the Franco regime which will submit its report to the Council of Europe;
8.2.2. continue to make available to all historians and researchers all civilian and military archives which may contain documents that can contribute to establishing the truth regarding repression;
8.2.3. set up a permanent exhibition in the underground basilica at the Valle de los Caídos (Valley of the Fallen) outside Madrid – where Franco is buried – explaining how it was built by the republican prisoners;
8.2.4. encourage local authorities to erect memorials as a tribute to the victims of the Franco regime in the capital of Spain and in other major Spanish cities.
4. Two months later, the European Union Committee of Ministers met to consider the issue. The result of their deliberations was the following brief official condemnation of the human rights violations committed by the Franco régime, accompanied by diplomatic glosses on Spain’s subsequent achievement of democracy and on the need to condemn all totalitarian régimes.
CM/AS(2006)Rec1736 final 5 May 2006
Need for international condemnation of the Franco regime
Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1736 (2006)
(Reply adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 3 May 2006 at the 963rd meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)
1. Like the Parliamentary Assembly, the Committee of Ministers condemns the repeated serious human rights violations by the Franco regime and agrees that it is important to remember the crimes by all totalitarian regimes so as to avoid repeating the errors of the past. In this connection, the Committee of Ministers acknowledges the courageous steps taken in this respect in Spain itself.
2. At the same time, the Committee of Ministers notes that Spain’s transition to democracy shortly after the end of the Franco regime is an example to all other countries undergoing the same process. It welcomes the fact that the year 2007 will be the 30th anniversary of Spain’s accession to the Council of Europe, which was made possible by that successful transition.
3. As regards the specific recommendations addressed by the Assembly, the Committee of Ministers believes that all totalitarian regimes without distinction, including the Franco regime, should be made the object of a declaration or official day of the kind which the Assembly suggests. Singling out one regime rather than another might create the mistaken impression that some totalitarian regimes are worthier of condemnation than others, whereas all of them collectively merit our reprobation. (https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=996207&Site=CM&BackColorInternet=9999CC&BackColorIntranet=FFBB55&BackColorLogged=FFAC75)
Although the lengthier and stronger Parliamentary Assembly Recommendations (Section 3 above) were reported in the Spanish Press and are referred to in Wikipedia (English), in the articles Francisco Franco and Spain under Franco), this final official European Union condemnation of Franco’s régime (however brief) has not been publicised (possibly because of its brevity and diplomatic patina) and is (so far) missing from Wikipedia (in English and French, but is present in one of the relevant Spanish Wikipedia articles: Dictadura de Franco).1
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